For example, Rbfox2 deletion reduced the expression of the predominantly expressed Map3k7 transcript. The short Fn1 transcript was not present in Rbfox2 mutants. We observed significant enrichment suggesting that Rbfox2 can directly bind to the RNA of these target genes and modulate splicing Figure 5J. To determine the transcriptional changes associated with the craniofacial defects, we analyzed genes that are differentially expressed between control and Rbfox2 knockouts. We identified 56 differentially expressed genes Figure 5K. We further validated the expression of candidate genes that were either differentially expressed or spliced by quantitative PCR in both control and Rbfox2 knockout tissues Figure 5L.
Together, we identified over AS transcripts and 56 genes that are differentially expressed between control and Rbfox2 mutant embryos. Recent work has shown that Tak1, encoded by Map3k7 is required for activation of both canonical and non-canonical signaling. We further investigated the downstream signaling targets of Tak1 such as p38 Mapk, phosphorylated p38 Mapk, Smad2, and phosphorylated Smad2.
The level of C-terminal Smad2 phosphorylation was significantly reduced; however, no change in total Smad2 was observed. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated p38 Mapk was significantly reduced, although there was no change in total p38 Mapk Figure 6A and Figure 6—figure supplement 1.
Cleft Lip and Palate
Consistent with the reduction in its mRNA levels, Fn1 protein levels were also significantly reduced in Rbfox2 mutant neural crest as compared with controls Figure 6B and Figure 6—figure supplement 1. We established culture conditions to grow palatal mesenchymal cells from control and Rbfox2 mutant embryos. Western blot and quantification for fibronectin on control and Rbfox2 mutant embryos at E Primary palatal mesenchymal cell cultures were established from E Representative bright field and fluorescent images were taken.
The majority of the cultured cells are GFP positive demonstrating their neural crest origin C. Quantification of western blot E. Overexpression of Tak1 in Rbfox2 mutant palatal mesenchymal cells. Ki67 immunostaining to determine palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation F. Representative western blot for Tak1 and pTak1 G.
Quantification of the percentage of Ki67 positive cells H. PS, palatal shelves; NS , not significant. We confirmed that both Tak1 and phosphorylated Tak1 levels were significantly increased after Tak1 transfection in Rbfox2 mutant cells Figure 6G. Consistent with the in vivo data, Rbfox2 mutant palatal cells proliferate slower than control cells and Tak1 overexpression can rescue the proliferation defects Figure 6H. To determine the effect of Tak1 overexpression on the expression of Rbfox2-dependent genes, we performed qRT-PCR for Map3k7 , Fn1 , Myl1 , Sfrs18 and Smarca2 on control and Rbfox2 mutant cells transfected with either empty plasmid vector or plasmid expressing Tak1 Figure 6—figure supplement 2.
Compared with empty vector transfected controls, we observed significant increase in the expression of Map3k7 and Fn1 in Tak1 overexpressing Rbfox2 mutant cells. No change in Myl1 , Sfrs18 and Smarca2 expression was observed Figure 6—figure supplement 2. A similar trend was observed with Tak1 inhibitor Figure 7C and Figure 7—figure supplement 1.
To further investigate how Smad-dependent canonical pathway regulates Rbfox2 expression, we analyzed 2. Rbfox2 promoter fragment 1. Predicted binding sites in Rbfox2 promoter were tested H. Rbfox2 regulates alternative splicing and transcription of neural crest genes. During embryonic development, various organ formations require precise spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Traditionally, developmental studies were more focused on the role of transcription factors and signaling pathways. It is only in recent years that the importance of splicing factors has been demonstrated in regulating various developmental processes.
However, the cell-autonomous role of splicing factors in neural crest development is poorly investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate a critical role for splicing regulator Rbfox2 in NCCs. We show that Rbfox2 is expressed in pre-migratory and migratory NCCs, neural crest-derived palate shelves, dorsal root ganglia, and somites.
We show that cleft palate defect was due to impaired palate cell proliferation and not due to cell death or impaired NCCs migration. To examine the effect of Rbfox2 deletion on cranial NCCs, we examined the cranial NC-derived craniofacial skeletons and found that majority of the NC-derived bones were affected in Rbfox2 mutants. NCCs contribute to the formation and septation of the cardiac OFT, as well as patterning and remodeling of aortic arch arteries.
In contrast to a fully penetrant cleft palate and craniofacial bone defects, no cardiac defects were observed in Rbfox2 mutants. This surprising finding led us to investigate if Rbfox2 is expressed during OFT development. We found Rbfox2 expression was not detected in the NC-derived cardiac tissues; thereby explaining the lack of OFT defects. NCCs also contribute to the peripheral tissues such as nervous systems, thymus, adrenal gland and others Dupin and Sommer, With the exception of cranial nerves, all other neural crest-derived tissues analyzed develop grossly normal, suggesting that Rbfox2 may not be or only transiently expressed in these NC-derived tissues.
These findings indicate that Rbfox2 is required for the development of a narrow subset of the NCCs. Since Pax3 Cre is also active in non-neural crest-derived tissues such as somites and limb and diaphragm muscles Bajard et al. In contrast to the controls, ectopic bone formation and fusion of vertebral bodies was observed in Rbfox2 Pax3-CKO embryos, most likely the reason for the straight vertebral column. As the metameric organization of the axial skeleton is derived from the somites, these results demonstrate that Rbfox2 in the somites is necessary for proper development of the vertebral column.
No obvious defects in the limb and diaphragm muscles were observed. Since both Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 are co-expressed in skeletal muscle, it is possible that Rbfox1 is able to compensate for the loss of Rbfox2 , thus preventing any developmental defects. Recently, Singh et al. Splicing is a tightly regulated process required for increasing the transcriptome complexity using a finite set of genes, Baralle and Giudice, ; Revil et al. It enhances proteomic diversity by increasing the number of distinct mRNAs transcribed from a single gene.
Genetic mutations in splicing regulators have been reported in various human diseases Cieply and Carstens, ; Garcia-Blanco et al. Here, we not only demonstrate that Rbfox2 is essential for the development of tissues derived from NCCs, but also uncover over Rbfox2-dependent splicing events that occur during neural crest development. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that Rbfox2 deletion altered splicing and expression of genes involved in the neural crest or craniofacial development.
Neural crest-specific deletion of Tak1 results in the cleft palate Song et al. Fibronectin 1 Fn1 , which is a component of the extracellular matrix, has various alternatively spliced variants. Wang et al. Reduced expression of both Map3k7 and Fn1 was observed in Rbfox2 mutant tissues. In the present study, in addition to changes in splicing, we also identified 56 genes that are differentially expressed between control and Rbfox2 mutant embryos. A number of genes implicated in craniofacial bone development such as Igf1 , Wnt5a, Fn1, and Aldh1a2 etc.
We found that only five Meg3 , Ccnl2 , Smarca2 , Tpm1, and Fn1 of 56 differentially expressed genes were also alternatively spliced, suggesting that Rbfox2 regulates transcriptional gene networks apart from alternative splicing. This is not surprising considering Rbfox2 has been reported to regulate gene expression patterns by different mechanisms Damianov et al. Rbfox2 may affect gene expression by recruiting polycomb complexes to the DNA Wei et al.
Future work in this direction will help to determine the mechanism by which Rbfox2 regulates expression of neural crest genes. However, the mechanisms by which splicing factors could be integrated into these gene regulatory networks need to be further explored. Patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have craniofacial malformations, including cleft palate, craniosynostosis and hypertelorism Loeys et al.
For example, Map3k7 encoding Tak1 is differentially spliced and downregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in Rbfox2 mutant cells. Tak1 expression, but not its activity, was significantly reduced in the palatal mesenchyme of Rbfox2 mutant embryos. Similar to Rbfox2 mutants, neural crest-specific deletion of Map3k7 or Fn1 leads to craniofacial defects including cleft palate Song et al. Chondrocyte-specific deletion of Tak1 results in severe chondrodysplasia with impaired ossification and joint abnormalities including tarsal fusion Shim et al.
Osteoblast-specific deletion of Tak1 results in clavicular hypoplasia and delayed fontanelle fusion Greenblatt et al. Interestingly, loss of Rbfox2 results in similar defects such as fused cervical bones, hypoplastic craniofacial bone, delayed ossification and fusion of cranial bones. Consistent with these findings, heterozygous mutations in MAP3K7 cause cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome, as characterized by craniofacial and cardiac defects including dysmorphic facial bones and extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis Le Goff et al.
Altogether, the striking similarities in craniofacial and skeletal phenotypes between Tak1 and Rbfox2 mutants suggest that Tak1 is a downstream target of Rbfox2 and it may significantly contribute to the phenotype observed in Rbfox2 mutant embryos. This indicates that Tak1 regulates neural crest-derived tissues downstream of Rbfox2. It is possible that other Rbfox2 target genes identified in our RNA-Seq screen may be responsible or contribute to the craniofacial phenotype present in Rbfox2 mutant embryos.
Thus, further functional characterization and investigation of their expression and splicing patterns are clearly warranted. In summary, we have provided evidence that Rbfox2 modulates neural crest development. Littermate embryos were analyzed in all experiments unless otherwise noted.
H and E staining was performed for gross histological analysis using standard procedures Katz et al. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin sections of PFA-fixed embryos. Jessell and J. Whole-mount immunostaining for neurofilament 2H3 was carried out as described previously Meadows et al. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Ki67 immunohistochemistry Abcam, Cat. For each genotype, images of 4—6 different sections of 3—4 independent embryos were used. Embryos were incubated in 0. The 0. Imaging was done using an inverted Olympus dissecting microscope.
Craniofacial tissue was microdissected from E Three independent biological replicates were used for each genotype group. Biological replicates were individually barcoded and pooled for paired-end sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform at the Genome Institute of Singapore. Differential expression of genes and transcripts between controls and knockout samples were determined using two tools: MISO Mixture of Isoforms Katz et al.
Palate shelves were dissected from E Palate shelves were homogenized and plated on gelatin-coated culture plates. Majority of cultured cells are GFP positive demonstrating their neural crest origin. S or 5 Z Oxozeaenol 0.
For Tak1 rescue experiment, primary palatal mesenchymal cells were isolated from E Western blots were performed as described previously Singh et al. Blots were then washed in TBST and incubated for 1. Immunoreactive bands were detected by chemiluminescence Hiss GmbH, catalog no. Luciferase assay was performed as previously described Singh et al.
Briefly, HEKT cells were seeded in well plates for 24 hr before transfection. To normalize transfection, 50 ng of lacZ expression plasmid was also transfected together with other indicated plasmids. Cell extracts were prepared 60 hr post-transfection using lysis buffer Promega, catalog No. Luciferase reporter activity was normalized to b-galactosidase activity. The luciferase assay results were reproduced in at least three independent experiments.
All experiments were performed in duplicate, and the representative data are shown in the bar graphs. ChIP experiments were performed as previously described Singh et al. RNA-IP experiments were performed as previously described with minor modifications Niranjanakumari et al. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-tailed Student's t-test. In the interests of transparency, eLife includes the editorial decision letter and accompanying author responses. A lightly edited version of the letter sent to the authors after peer review is shown, indicating the most substantive concerns; minor comments are not usually included.
Thank you for submitting your article "Neural crest-specific deletion of splicing factor Rbfox2 leads to craniofacial abnormalities including cleft palate" for consideration by eLife. Your article has been reviewed by two peer reviewers, and the evaluation has been overseen by a Reviewing Editor and K VijayRaghavan as the Senior Editor.
The following individuals involved in review of your submission have agreed to reveal their identity: Hiroki Kurihara Reviewer 1. The reviewers have discussed the reviews with one another and the Reviewing Editor has drafted this decision to help you prepare a revised submission. This article focuses on the splicing factor Rbfox2 and its expression in neural crest cells. Lineage specific gene ablation results in craniofacial bone defects and cleft palate. These are interesting findings. However the following points should be addressed before publication.
However, EMT in palate formation occurs in medial edge epithelial cells after palatal fusion in the midline. Without this midline fusion in Rbfox2 mutants, no definite conclusion can be drawn for EMT.
Concerning other cranial nerves, profound ophthalmic and trochlear nerves appear to be deformed, as observed in the supplemental figures? Can the authors distinguish these effects? Some comment is required. To determine the effect of Tak1 overexpression on the expression of Rbfox2-dependent genes, we performed qRT-PCR for Map3k7, Fn1, Myl1, Sfrs18 and Smarca2 on control and Rbfox2 mutant cells transfected with empty plasmid vector or a plasmid expressing Tak1.
We observed a significant increase in the expression of Map3k7 and Fn1 in Tak1 overexpressing Rbfox2 mutant cells compared to the empty vector transfected controls. However, no change in the expression of Myl1, Sfrs18, and Smarca2 was observed. These findings have been included in Figure 6—figure supplement 2 and discussed in the Results section. We have quantified all the western blots used in this manuscript. Quantification results have been included in the revised Figure 6 and 7.
We would like to clarify that our experiment was designed to rescue the proliferation defect observed in palate cells due to Rbfox2 deletion. We cultured the control and Rbfox2 mutant palate cells and transfected the Rbfox2 mutant cells with either empty plasmid pcDNA3 or a plasmid expressing Tak1 pcDNA3- Tak1 , and performed Ki67 immunostaining. We observed increased expression of both Tak1 and phosphorylated Tak1 after Tak1 transfection in Rbfox2 mutant cells.
Our results demonstrate that Tak1 overexpression can rescue the proliferation defects observed in Rbfox2 mutant palate cells. We did not perform palatal shelf explant culture experiments to rescue palate growth and fusion. We agree with the reviewer that it is possible that hypoglossal nerve defects are secondary to defects in the hypoglossal cord. Cells from occipital somites myotomes grow towards the tongue as the "hypoglossal cord", which arrives prior to the hypoglossal nerve. Any defects in the hypoglossal cord could affect the formation of the hypoglossal nerve.
Bajard et al. We have discussed this point in the revised manuscript. Yes, we also see changes in the structure of ophthalmic and trochlear nerves in Rbfox2 mutants. Thanks for bringing this to our attention. We have revised the Figure 4—figure supplement 3 and included these results in the revised manuscript.
Using these tools, we have identified over alternatively spliced transcripts Figure 5B-C and 56 genes that are differentially expressed Figure 5K between control and Rbfox2 mutant embryos. We found that only 5 out of 56 differentially expressed genes were also alternatively spliced suggesting that Rbfox2 regulates transcriptional gene networks apart from alternative splicing.
These details have been included in the manuscript. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication. We would like to thank Sandip Chorghade for technical assistance. We are thankful to MKS lab members for helpful discussion. However, altered expression profiles of several miRNAs have been identified in many complex, multifactorial diseases, for example cardiovascular diseases van Rooij and Olson, As shown in Figure 3 , changes in many similarly expressed miRNAs acting synergistically on disease-associated mRNAs may therefore contribute to common congenital diseases within a multifactorial model Chavali et al.
Figure 3. MiRNA involvement in congenital disease. Alterations affecting miRNA activity by changing target recognition or modulating their expression. Epigenetic changes in this context refer to functional changes without a change in the DNA sequence, such as methylation and histone modification. An initial approach to determine the role of miRNAs in vertebrate development has been to genetically delete Dicer and Dgcr8 in mice. Homozygous zygotic deletion of either gene in mice leads to severe growth retardation and embryonic lethality shortly after implantation Bernstein et al.
Additional studies showed that miRNAs have fundamentally different developmental roles depending on the tissue Spruce et al. Figure 4. Homozygous conditional deletion of Dicer in neural crest derived mesenchyme and oral ectoderm. Coronal sections of E Black arrow: left palate. Conditional deletion of Dicer controlled by Pax2-Cre or Wnt1-Cre leads to perinatal death with severe craniofacial malformations in mice Sheehy et al.
Pax2 and Wnt1 expression is specific for cNC-derived mesenchyme from embryonic day E 7. However, Wnt1 is expressed in all cNC-derived tissues, while Pax2 expression is limited to the first pharyngeal arch and the anterior skull. In both knockouts, a secondary palatal cleft develops due to absent vertical growth of the palatal shelves PS. The epithelium overlying the hard palate has no significant histological changes, while that covering the soft palate is much thicker compared to controls Otsuka-Tanaka et al.
Both are regulators of cNC-derived mesenchyme survival Macatee et al. This may occur through miR, which is highly expressed in cNC-derived mesenchyme at E This finding is particularly interesting because of the possible link with the human syndrome caused by a heterozygous microdeletion of chromosome region 22q This microdeletion syndrome has a large phenotypic variability with cleft palate as a common feature. Many genes lie within the deleted region, of which only Tbx1 has been linked to cleft palate Goudy et al.
However, it requires a homozygous deletion of Tbx1 for mice to develop a cleft palate, suggesting that other genes in the deleted 22q It is also interesting to note that DGCR8 is strongly expressed in the developing PS of mice but further studies are needed to elucidate the role in normal palatogenesis and cleft palate formation Shiohama et al. The data thus indicate that miRNAs are essential to maintain cNC-derived mesenchyme survival during the initial vertical outgrowth of the PS.
Conditional deletion of Dicer controlled by Pitx2-Cre and Shh-Cre —more specific for the oral ectoderm—leads to dental and palatal defects. By using the promoter of Pitx2 , a gene that is expressed in the oral ectoderm as early as E Conditional Dicer deletion using the promoter of Shh , which is expressed as early as E Most of the identified miRNAs exhibited a linear expression pattern over time and, for the PS, could be grouped into 6 specific patterns. These data suggest a specific and regulated spatiotemporal pattern of miRNAs may be crucial for palatogenesis.
Apart from miR, the miR cluster, and miRb see below , most of the miRNAs have an as yet unknown role in palatogenesis. By focusing on a limited number of these unknown miRNAs, the authors demonstrated that many mRNAs important to palatogenesis are experimentally validated targets and that the miRNAs could be integrated in gene networks regulating processes such as cell proliferation, adhesion, apoptosis and EMT.
An additional expression study in mice, using small RNA sequencing, showed similar differential expression patterns over time Ding et al. Over expression of both these miRNAs in zebrafish leads to broadening and a cleft, respectively, of the ethmoid plate, a component of the palatal skeleton in zebrafish. Two avian studies identified several miRNAs in the developing frontonasal process with similar expression to that in mice Darnell et al. This may reflect the similar molecular mechanisms during early palatogenesis.
However, in birds, the palatal shelves never fuse completely into a secondary palate and many of the identified miRNAs were avian-specific. It is therefore interesting that avian-specific miRNAs were identified in the frontonasal process, but it remains to be investigated whether they have any functional role.
During neural tube closure, cNC cells delaminate from the neural fold and migrate in three streams toward the pharyngeal arches. Within the first pharyngeal arch the cNC cells fill the space adjacent to the oral ectoderm and undergo epithelial-mesenchymal interactions resulting in the vertical growth of the PS. Proper migration of cNC cells to the first pharyngeal arch is thus essential for palatogenesis. Studies in zebrafish have shown that proper miR expression in migrating cNC cells is needed during palatogenesis.
MiR is a highly conserved miRNA that is located in an orthologous intron of Wwp2 , which encodes a ubiquitin ligase that is essential for palatogenesis Nakamura et al. In mice it has been identified that the transcription of both miR and Wwp2 is regulated by the SOX9 transcription factor Nakamura et al. Interestingly, miR also has its own regulatory element for SOX9, which suggest that its expression could be regulated independently of Wwp2. MiR is broadly expressed in migrating cNC cells and gradually becomes restricted to skeletogenic crest cells, including those of the PS Eberhart et al.
MiR overexpression in zebrafish results in a cleft between the lateral elements of the ethmoid plate, a structural analog of the amniote palate that is found in higher vertebrates, while underexpression results in an abnormal shape of this plate Eberhart et al. In this respect, it is interesting to note that miR null mice exhibit shorter palatal bones but no overt cleft palate Miyaki et al.
The zebrafish studies have also shown that miR specifically targets pdgfra translation, which in turn represses Pdgfa-mediated attraction of both rostrally and caudally migrating anterior cNC cells to the palatal ectoderm. The precise expression level of miR is critical as overexpression will decrease Pdgfa-mediated attraction of both subsets of cNC cells while underexpression inhibits only the rostrally migrating cNC cells to move past the optic stalk. As the molecular mechanisms that guide cNC cell migration and differentiation are highly conserved in most vertebrates, a similar mechanism is plausible.
However, it is important to remember that miR expression increases and is maintained in the developing PS up to and including the fusion of the secondary palate. As zebrafish do not have a nasopharynx, secondary palate formation does not occur and, therefore, it is possible that miR plays an additional role in secondary palate formation among higher vertebrates. Recent genetic studies have shown that miR is also involved in the etiology of cleft palate in humans.
The minor, A allele of rs, with a higher frequency in patients, was associated with a decrease of miRp expression and an increase of miRp expression. In addition, miR was found to be down-regulated in palatal mesenchymal cells by smoking. Furthermore, this variant is highly conserved in primates and functionally relevant. Genetic evidence thus supports the role of miR dysregulation in the etiology of cleft palate. Palatal shelf outgrowth is an essential step during palatogenesis Figure 1.
During this phase, the shelves increase in size through mesenchymal cell proliferation and the production of extracellular matrix components such as collagen. The mir cluster, firstly identified as an inducer of tumor formation through its pro-proliferative effect, has been shown to play a similar role during palatogenesis in mice Wang et al. Ancient genetic duplications have given rise to two miR cluster paralogs in mammals: the miRb cluster located on human chromosome 7 and the miRa cluster located on the X chromosome.
The expression of mir and its 2 paralogs follows a similar pattern in mouse embryos decreasing from E12 to E14 and concentrating in the distal tips of the PS during palatogenesis Mukhopadhyay et al.
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MiRb is expressed at a lower level than miR Homozygous deletion of miR in mice leads to perinatal death due to severe hypoplastic lungs and ventricular septal defects Ventura et al. As demonstrated by Wang et al. This phenotype is similar to that seen in patients with a specific germline deletion of the miR cluster de Pontual et al.
Whereas deletion of the paralogs alone induced no gross abnormalities in mice, compound loss of miRb with miR leads to a completely penetrant cleft palate Wang et al. In addition, the miR cluster was shown to regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, with loss of cluster function being associated with bone deficiencies Zhou et al.
Although no mention is made of a submucous cleft palate in the mouse embryos, it is possible that such a cleft is present, similar to Tbx22 null mice Pauws et al. Wang et al. It was also identified that the expression of miR is regulated through BMP signaling, a deficiency of which was shown to cause cleft palate and other craniofacial anomalies. In addition, the master regulator of cranial neural crest development AP-2a is involved in the regulation of miR Wang et al.
Interestingly, miRa also maintains BMP signaling during pharyngeal cartilage formation Ning et al. In addition, a functional synergy has been identified between the miR cluster and the SHH signaling pathway, which itself drives palatal shelf outgrowth and functionally interacts with the BMP signaling pathway Uziel et al. This corroborates the above in vivo studies.
However, collagen synthesis was also decreased in these cells. In vivo and in vitro studies thus suggest that the miR cluster controls palatogenesis by targeting several regulators of cell proliferation, analogous to its effect in cancer development. In addition, this cluster affects collagen synthesis, which also plays an essential role during palatal shelf outgrowth. In the last phase of palatogenesis, the epithelium between the two contacted palatal shelves—the midline epithelial seam MES —needs to be removed to provide mesenchymal continuity.
The disintegration of the MES is likely due to three mechanisms, namely epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell death and migration of the MES cells Bush and Jiang, MiRb belongs to the miR family and together with other family members miRa and miR, it is clustered in an intergenic region on human chromosome 1. MiRb is expressed in the epithelium during palatogenesis in the mouse, including in the midline epithelial seam MES , and its expression gradually decreases as fusion proceeds Shin et al. In keeping with this, overexpression of miRb results in a failure of fusion due to persistence of the MES Shin et al.
The processes of palatal shelf growth, elevation and fusion require precise spatiotemporal gene expression patterns. This is also reflected by the critical role of transcription factors in palatogenesis. Advances in genomics have made it clear that certain non-coding regions of the genome are predominant gene regulators. They are essential for embryonic development, and depletion of miRNAs in the mesenchyme and oral ectoderm of mouse embryos leads to cleft palate. With the exponential increase in new miRNAs being identified, it is likely that many miRNAs will turn out to have a role during palatogenesis.
However, to date, the role of only a few miRNAs in palatogenesis has been established in mice Table 1. In summary, miR regulates the migration of neural crest cells, miRb regulates palatal fusion and the miRb cluster regulates palatal shelf growth. As miRNAs have a tissue-specific expression and role it is, however, more interesting to study their expression in the relevant tissues. This provides further proof that polymorphisms in miRNAs and their target sites are sources of phenotypic variation.
Therefore, future studies on miRNA polymorphisms and cleft palate may provide a good basis for increasing our knowledge about the genetic risk variants contributing to non-syndromic cleft palate. Table 1. CS, CC, JV: Conception of the work, drafting of the manuscipt, revision of the manuscript, final approval of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We would like to thank professor H. Ambros, V. A uniform system for microRNA annotation. RNA 9, — Barritt, L.
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Related Vascular Pattern in Embryos with Clefts of Primary and Secondary Palate
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