The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)

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While it is easy to paint an alarming picture of the rolling-news technology as a corporate- and technologically-driven global political agent, I want to point cautiously as well to its potential as a facilitating force in the emergence of a global democratic polity. Serving as a typology of CNN influence, these categories conceptualize the CNN effect as accelerant, as impediment, and as agenda-setting agency Livingston, First, when the CNN effect is conceptualized as an accelerant, the assumption is that the latest global communication technologies deprive diplomats of the luxury of time for careful deliberation.

Within the context of transnational satellite technologies, "real-time" journalism is the defining term that characterizes many journalistic practices subject to the principle of speed. This principle necessitates instant analysis and response. As Nicholas Burns, State Department spokesperson, states, "In our day, as events unfold half a world away, it is not unusual for CNN State Department correspondent Steve Hurst to ask me for a reaction before we've had a chance to receive a more detailed report from our embassy and consider carefully our options.

Here the concern is the public's emotional response to particular images e. The decision by the Clinton administration in to terminate the intervention in Somalia, some argue, was based on the public's reaction to such televised images see Seib, Finally, the most familiar way to conceptualize the CNN effect is to view it as an "agenda-setting" agency. Mohamed Sacirbey, Bosnian ambassador to the United Nations, once said: "If you look at how humanitarian relief is delivered in Bosnia you see that those areas where the TV cameras are most present are the ones that are the best fed, the ones that receive the most medicines.

While on the other hand, many of our people have starved and died of disease and shelling where there are no TV cameras" cited in Seib , p. It has been reported that the decision to intervene in Somalia in the first place was based on the press coverage of human misery. As Marlin Fitzwater, Bush's press secretary, confessed about the Somalia policy decision: "After the election, the media had the free time [to cover Somalia] and that was when the pressure started building up.

We heard it from every corner that something must be done. Finally, the pressure was too great. The president said, 'I just can't live with this for two months. When the images of starvation, anarchy, and human misery appear on television screens, television becomes the de facto "must-do-something" framework for policy-makers. Yet despite the obvious pressure of round-the-clock coverage as a complicating factor in the conduct of foreign policy, we cannot conclude that CNN's agenda-setting drives policy decisions.

To take the case of "humanitarian crises" e. Livingston has demonstrated, for example, that the majority of humanitarian operations are conducted without much media attention. Livingston and Eachus have argued that the decision to intervene in Somalia was based more on diplomatic and bureaucratic operations than press coverage.

These counter-examples suggest that in order to understand the political efficacy of CNN and the CNN effect thesis, we must examine the larger context of international global television news. A good point of departure for reconsidering the larger context of global television news is the agent most visible in the "CNN effect" debates, the American Cable News Network CNN itself. Much of what is meant by "the CNN effect" is an effort to articulate media-driven foreign policy. The reason that CNN, "the world's news leader," gets singled out is its dominance in the global news market.

It is available to more than million people all over the planet. CNN Group is hailed as one of the most profitable news and information operations Thussu, CNN's expansion into multiple networks, with a wholesale news service CNN Newsource that sells video news to more than broadcast entities around the world, has demonstrated the degree to which news business can be profitable. Truly "global" television news has to be conflict-driven or it will cease to exist as such.

What is particularly relevant to our argument is that such a development is to a large extent the result of the insatiable appetite rolling-news television channels have for content. Indeed MacGregor sees the shift in function from newsgathering to reporting live as a response to "the relentless demand of rolling-news" p.

Such a demand is met in other ways as well, the consideration of which leads us to the second striking characteristic of the rolling-news genre. Apart from repetition by way of recaps and summaries, rolling-news channels tend to fill their schedule with "talk" and "speculation" opinion, analysis, debate, talk shows, etc. The boundless commentary on a sex scandal e.

The standard argument in such a context is that entertainment is creeping into the news. But if we follow our argument to its logical conclusion we have to turn the argument around. That is to say, we have to conclude that the news industry is taking over the entertainment division of the networks. Baudrillard makes a distinction between the event e. That is to say, real events lose their identity once they are "encrusted" with "information" as real-time media events p.

Put another way, the event the Gulf War disappears in the endless speculation and interpretation by experts, analysts, and commentators the media event. Gerbner offers a similar argument in an essay titled "Persian Gulf War, the Movie" the "Movie" is what Baudrillard calls the simulacrum.

Gerbner argues, "Instant history is made when access to video-satellite-computer systems blankets the world in real time with selected images that provoke immediate reactions, influence the outcome, and then quick-freeze into received history" p. Making instant history "requires a total environment of actuality, images, talk shows, slogans, and other creative manifestations" p. In the next section of this article, I discuss the international political implications of the emergence of this genre.

I want to reflect on the political dangers and potentials of international rolling-news broadcasting in terms of this framework. Some of the more significant political implications of global television news may be examined by way of reflection on the idea of "global. Moreover, it tends to avoid the state as in nation-state and its role in a more contentious political realm.

Even a term such as "international community" is ideologically charged. Sorting out who belongs to this "community" and who is excluded from it e. Yet, the international media, and those whose interests they represent, always strive to construct "the global community" in their address. In this attempt to construct the "global community" lies the political dimension of the international media. In his research on the television coverage of the Reagan-Gorbachev Summits as global "media events," Hallin addresses the construction of "global community" by the international media.

The framework he finds most appropriate for applying to a divided and conflictual world is that of the public sphere. His analysis examines the possibility of the constitution of an "international public sphere. In this context, he wants to know if such global media events opened up an international public sphere. To the extent that the two "superpowers" engaged each other before the "court of world opinion," and engaged in a conversation with the world press, and to the extent that the journalists from both countries entered into a dialogue with each other, the "summits opened a semblance of an international public sphere" p.

The notion of the international public sphere, however, has its limitations. In order to address these limitations, Hallin breaks down the notion of global community into two views: the civil the people as the citizens of the of the world and the statist the states as the citizens of the world. He concludes that at the statist level, the participation in the "global dialogue" was "extremely uneven" given the fact that the views of many states were excluded from the dialogue. At the civic level, however, the media played a different role.

Earlier, I observed that "global" television is conflict-driven. The centrality of conflict tends to involve global television news in a statist view of the global community. If we take the case of the Persian Gulf War CNN's "defining moment" for example, the global media can hardly take any credit for contributing to a global dialogue or the constitution of an international public sphere. Quite the contrary, the research shows not only a lack of dialogue, but it also paints the global media as instrument of war and propaganda in the hands of those with the means to deploy them e.

The conflict in Kosovo, to take another example, follows the same path in privileging the views of a few e. This trend has been present in the post-Vietnam "low-intensity conflicts" in the Falklands, Grenada, and Panama as well. These cases alarmingly question the status of the press as instruments of dialogue and civic discourse and their role in a democratic transnational civil society. At the same there are some optimistic signs as well.

There are occasions when the international rolling-news television contributes to a civil view of the global community and in doing so it contributes to the constitution of an international public sphere. The continued international coverage of disasters and catastrophes e.

Additionally, in the absence of conflict and disasters, through the insatiable demand for content, albeit in the form of talk and speculation, the international rolling-news television cultivates interest in participation in matters of public concern. The televisualization of foreign policy issues and policy-making processes e. In this article I have focused on some of the issues raised by the debate on "the CNN effect. If a medium with a relentless appetite for content has the technological means to reach a truly global audience, then we have reasons for both optimistic and pessimistic views of the future.

The transnational broadcasting technologies may be used to promote the views and the interests of the powerful. Alternatively, they could be used to bring to the global audiences matters of international concern to promote dialogue. It is not the communication technologies but their deployment that can foster or shun democratic values. Notes and References. Livingston discusses the media as impediment category as a an "emotional inhibitor" and b a "threat to operational security.

For other statements and examples attesting to this issue see Neuman , Seib , and Livingston As the United States prepared a military strike against Iraq for failing to meet the demands of the UN's weapon inspection team, CNN, at the request of the White House, organized a "town hall meeting. Contrary to the White House's expectations, the audience of this "talk show" refused to ask polite questions and embarrassed the administration. While the program was deemed a "public relations fiasco," it was seen as a "bonanza" for CNN Bennet, The public participation in this case, while accidental, is nevertheless a democratic byproduct of the televisualization of foreign policy decision-making processes.

References : Baudrillard, J. Simon Cottle is currently professor of media and communications in the School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University, UK, and was formerly director and chair of the media and communications program at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Her research interests are in interactional sociolinguistics and critical discourse analysis, particularly in identity in talk and text, health and the life-span, and communication and relationships.

She is working collaboratively on small talk, discourse, relationships, and aging. Coupland's teaching centers on the above research interests within three themes, taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels: discourse and pragmatics language use, meaning, and interpretation in social contexts ; social interaction critical discourse analysis, conversational management, power and solidarity, and small talk and gossip ; and media communication media texts and ideology, broadcast talk, and the intersection of the public and private domains.

Jeffrey L.

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With Peter M. Robert L. Craig is a professor of communication and journalism at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. He teaches courses in media studies, visual communication, and graphic design. Sean Cubitt is professor of global media and communications at the Winchester School of Art, University of Southampton, UK, professorial fellow in media and communications at the University of Melbourne, Australia, and honorary professor of the University of Dundee, UK.

Nicholas J. He has published widely on issues of media history. He is president of the council of the International Association for Media and History. He is a senior lecturer in art and art education. His research interests are mainly concerned with the relationship between socio-cultural and psychological processes in art and art education. He has authored several chapters and research articles and has exhibited paintings and drawings at the Royal Academy of Art and other venues. William R. His research pertains to problematic interactions in interpersonal relationships, including such contexts as embarrassing predicaments, relational transgressions, interpersonal conflict, and obsessive relational pursuit.

In addition to numerous monographs and journal articles, he has co-authored or co-edited 10 books. Peter Dahlgren is professor emeritus in media and communication studies at Lund University, Sweden. His research addresses media and culture in late modernity, emphasizing the themes of democracy, identity, the public sphere, and civic engagement.

Active in European academic networks, he has also been a visiting professor at several universities. Dainton is on the editorial board of three journals, and is a reviewer for an additional eight journals and four publishing houses. Nabil H. He specializes in the role of the media in society, with emphasis on the Lebanese and Arab media.

He is the author of several books, has published some 50 research articles in professional journals in English and Arabic, and has contributed to some 80 international and regional professional communication meetings. Katherine R. Her research interests include mediated intergroup interaction and stereotypes in the media. He has published more than articles and chapters in scholarly publications, and completed six books.

Daly's interests focus on practical ways of improving the communication skills of individuals. He has examined topics such as shyness, personality difference in communication, communication difficulties people experience in their personal and professional relationships, and ways people advocate for their ideas. Lucig H. Ann L. In her work on communication and teacher socialization with Ann Q. Staton received the national research award from the Association of Teacher Educators. She is now turning her attention to questions about public discourse about education and communication education and social justice.

Gregor Daschmann has been professor of communications at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany, since From to , he was professor of media and communication studies at the Hanover University of Music and Drama, Germany. Daschmann's dissertation about exemplification effects won the first prize in the dissertation award competition of the DGPuK. His work focuses on human—computer interaction and cognitive processing of media. He has published academic articles in areas such as communication technology, news memory, body image effects of the media, and public relations.

He is on the editorial board of three journals and is a co-investigator on various funded health intervention projects. Sandra Davidson , is an associate professor of journalism and adjunct associate professor of law at the University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. In summer , she traveled to Cambodia and Vietnam as part of a Global Scholars program.

He has served on the ethics task force of the Radio-Television News Directors Association, and has authored papers, journal articles, and book chapters on broadcast journalism and its effects. In addition to serving on the editorial boards of two journals, he is the co-author of two textbooks on electronic media and communication law. John J. His research interests include media uses and effects, entertainment theory, and the impact of media and new technology on families.

His recent publications focus on media use decisions within a family context. James W. He studies the diffusion of innovations throughout societal sectors and the implementation of innovations in organizations. He was a Senior Fulbright scholar and is a fellow of the International Communication Association serving as its president, — and a National Communication Association Distinguished Scholar.

He is also an active consultant for companies in the USA and Europe. Kristin Demetrious is associate head of school regional and development at Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. She is an experienced media and communication practitioner and also has a background in community work, for which, in , she received the Australian Centenary Medal. Her teaching at Deakin University has drawn extensively on her experience to provide her students with new intellectual perspectives in communication.

Her PhD focused on communication in sub-political movements and in public relations. His research emphasizes the role of emotion in persuasion. Having taught physics and worked as an electronics engineer in the USA and UK over a period of 10 years, he was a research group leader at Media Lab Europe in Dublin, Ireland, before moving to LSE, where he coordinates EU research projects in digital ecosystems for sustainable socio-economic development and autonomic communications.

He has published in applied aerodynamics, nonlinear physics, computer science, and social science. Her research fields include media history, environmental journalism, political communication, the sociology of journalism, and gender in media organizations. She was an invited member of two democratic audits in Sweden, and was an invited scholar to two public power commissions, and Marya L. She studies the tensions of cooperation—competition evident across and within organizations and examines how specific qualities of network relationships impact organizations and their constituents.

Her work analyzes social networks and communication content to show how they relate to situations in which networked partners find themselves simultaneously cooperating and competing. His research focuses on political communication, media entertainment, and audience research. He is author and co-author of several articles within these fields. Stephen K. Her public engagement includes significant contributions to the Labour party's Commission on Older Women in the Media, and advising MPs on older women in public life.

His research focuses on topics in social and pedagogical psychology. His research focuses on innovation processes in online communication, with a special interest in the re definition of practices and identities involved in news production, circulation, and use. Wolfgang Donsbach is professor of communication and founding director of the Department of Communication at Dresden University of Technology, Germany. Dorer is author, editor, or co-editor of nine books and numerous scientific articles in the field of feminist media studies, media theory, public relations, journalism, and noncommercial media.

Dorfman works with public health advocates to apply media advocacy and conducts research on the public health aspects of news and advertising. He has conducted research in the area of relationship development and relationship maintenance. More recently, he has pursued an expanding research program in the area of television and the family, focusing most especially on the portrayal of the family and family relations. Joe R. John D. David M. Dozier has conducted research on practitioner roles, research utilization in public relations practices, and gender issues.

He has published on celebrity and stardom, screen performance, memory and film music, and intellectual property rights. His scholarship centers on the deployment of popular music within interpersonal relationships and social settings. William F. Matthew S. As co-director of the Texas Media Research Lab, his research focuses on new media behavior. From this perspective, he has investigated information processing as well as the social and psychological factors associated with game play involvement, new media adoption, e-commerce, e-health, and organizational use.

Generally, his research utilizes information processing as a central mechanism to new media experiences i. Noar and Vicki S. Her recent research focuses on the role of individual characteristics that influence the interpretation of messages, with special attention given to the effects of sex and gender role. Her primary research interests include intersections of relational communication and health, particularly in the areas of social support and caregiving.

Christiane Eilders is professor of communication studies at the University of Augsburg, Germany. Her main research interests concern the structure of the public sphere, information processing and opinion formation, news selection, and other issues of political communication. Dr Eilders is the author of books and articles on political editorials, news values in the reception process, and the mediatization of war.

Sabrina C. Eimler holds master's degrees in applied communication and media sciences as well as cultural studies and economics from the University of Duisburg-Essen UDE , Germany. As a research assistant in the Department of Social Psychology: Media and Communication at the UDE she is interested in aspects of self-presentation, reception, and evaluation in social media, with a special focus on gender stereotypes in business networks like XING and LinkedIn.

Mara Einstein has been working in or writing about the media industry for the past 20 years. Prior to academia, Dr. His research focuses on consumer behavior, marketing communication, and empirical generalizations. He also writes on crime futures and co-evolution, and has created various frameworks for mapping causes of crime and preventive interventions, at www.

He teaches courses in media law and ethics, and comparative and international communication. Michael G. His book is titled Through their eyes: Factors affecting Muslim support for the U. Donald G. He is interested in communication issues related to ethnopolitical conflict with particular emphasis on conflict resolution, intractable conflicts, political communication, and democracy. While still at the University of Colorado, Dr.

Ellis's teaching, service, and research to the campus focused on the assessment and evaluation of oral communication, perceptions of teacher confirmation, and organizational trust. His research focuses on political communication, online communication, and quantitative research methodology. His primary area of research is in classical rhetoric. He has published widely on media and cultural studies, gender and sexual politics, youth popular consumption, transnational Chinese cultural studies, and the cultural politics of human rights.

He is also the director of the Institute of Brand and Communication Research and vice president of the German marketing association Deutscher Marketing Verband. For more than 15 years, Prof. Esch has been engaged in research regarding brand management and consumer behavior. Among other activities on the advisory boards of several companies e.

Felix Eschenburg studied psychology at the University of Marburg, Germany, and since has been a senior researcher in the Department of Psychology, University of Cologne, Germany. He acted as project leader for the University of Cologne in the European BioSec, and has planned and conducted laboratory as well as large-scale field studies on the usability and acceptance of biometric security systems and emergent interface technologies. He has a strong background in computer-mediated communication research and is an expert in multivariate data analysis and psychometrics.

He has held courses and seminars on social psychology group theories, physical attractiveness, empirical studies in social psychology , personality intelligence , and media psychology computer and video games, empirical research in media psychology. She is a documentary maker whose extensive creative work is centered on Latin American cultural, social, and political issues. Her areas of research encompass the study of global telecommunications and media ownership, culture and globalization, and social movements and their relationship to media.

She currently serves on the executive board for the Center for the Study of Women and Society at the University of Oregon. He has received awards for teaching excellence and scholarship, and published in comparative east—west philosophy, discourse ethics, history of philosophy, feminist biblical studies, computer-mediated communication, and cross-cultural approaches to information and computing ethics.

He was president of the Association of Internet Researchers, — His research centers on cross-national studies of news journalism and political communication. James S. He teaches courses focusing on the social organization and cultural impact of the mass media and new communication technologies. Glasser , which won a number of awards including the Sigma Delta Chi Award for research on journalism from the Society of Professional Journalists.

William P. Eveland, Jr. His research examines the role of mass media, new communication technologies, and political discussion in producing politically informed and active citizens. David R. In addition, he serves on the editorial board for six communication journals. His interests include pro-social effects of video game play, attitudes and persuasion, media psychology, and comprehension of media messages. His research concerns questions of web media, convergence, and hypertext and multimedia theory.

Outside of academia, he has worked as a web designer and a radio host. She has also published articles on argument theory, stylistics, the history of rhetoric, and the rhetoric of science. She has directed the professional writing program at Maryland and served on the board of the Rhetoric Society of America. Andreas Fahr's scholarship focuses on mass communication, mainly from a media psychological perspective. He studied communication, psychology, and economics between and at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany. Between and he worked as research associate at the Media Institute Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Her research focuses on media psychology and methodology. In her doctoral thesis she examined information and entertainment perception of political talk shows. Gail T. Her research focuses on organizational communication, leadership, and organizational discourse. Her work has received numerous awards, including the Best Article award for the communication discipline from the International Communication Association.

Lisa T. She is an accredited member of the Public Relations Society of America. He developed the ideodynamic model after noting a parallel between hormone biology and human communications: In biology, hormone-producing cells send identical chemical signals to affect other cells. In society, the publishers send identical copies of mass media messages to influence other people. Anthony L. He is a former newspaper reporter and editor. Jerry D. Her research focuses on the effects of news and entertainment on political knowledge, attitudes, and engagement. Anthony R.

Bob M. His research interests include nonconscious processes in social influence and persuasion. His research focuses on new media and audience behavior. Ferguson's publications include numerous journal articles and three books on television. She designed and delivered training in strategic communications to more than 1, Canadian federal government communication officers after being involved in the Privy Council Office project. She consulted extensively for the Canadian government and acted as a speechwriter for numerous government ministers and top-level bureaucrats. Cara A.

Olson and D. Finnegan, Jr. His interest is studying the role of media in public health. Her main fields of research include media functions in the social construction of reality; mediated representations of minority groups, particularly women and Arabs; multiculturalism as reflected in various genres on prime-time television; advertising as the locus of the Americanization process of Israeli society; and dilemmas in teaching and researching mass media. Shalom M.

For over 25 years, he has used educational practice and empirical research to help create TV series, websites, magazines, and other media that both entertain and educate children. Martin Fishbein is the Harry C. Coles Jr. He is also director of the health communication area in the Annenberg Public Policy Center and director of the theory and methods core of the University of Pennsylvania's Center of Excellence in Cancer Communication Research.

Developer of the theory of reasoned action and the integrative model of behavioral prediction, Prof. Fishbein has authored or co-authored six books and over articles. Carla L. Her research focuses on how intergenerational family communication affects wellness across the life-span. She has co-authored several chapters and articles on developmental communication research. Her research and teaching focus on interaction in social and personal relationships with a special emphasis on marital and family relationships.

Media Culture and the Triumph of the Spectacle

She is a past president of the International Communication Association and recipient of its Career Productivity Award of His research interests are in media psychology, media effects, and technology. As co-director of the WebArchivist. John A. Karen A. She was named Co-Gender Scholar of the Year by the Southern States Communication Association in and received the Francine Merritt Award from the National Communication Association in for her contributions to the lives of women in communication.

Her research interests include media effects on interpersonal relationships, sexualized representations in new media, health communication, and media literacy. Currently she is investigating the potential uses of new media technologies in health behavior modification. David A. Frank is professor of rhetoric and associate director of the Robert D. She has published extensively in the areas of media content and the technologies and sub-cultures of the screen. Her other research interests deal with issues of media self- regulation and media literacy, on which she provides expertise for UNESCO and the European Union.

In , she was awarded the E-Toile d'Or of the Internet for her research on new information technologies. Vicki S. She was director of communication at the CDC from to He was a research assistant at the Institute of Communication Studies, University of Erfurt, Germany, from to Lawrence R.

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Lewis A. Katherine T. Prior to joining academia, she worked in New York as an advertising copywriter and creative director for J. She was president of the Eastern Communication Association and has been active in the National Communication Association. She also serves on the editorial board of several journals and has published over 25 articles and chapters on instructional communication. His research interests include cultural studies and popular culture, political economy of Chinese media, gender and youth identity, and new media technologies. Robert N. His published work concerns strategic and deceptive communication and, more recently, national and gender identities.

He is currently working on projects on masculinity and mental health. He has sat on the editorial boards and teams of a number of international journals. Cindy Gallois is a professor of psychology and communication at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. She was founding director of the Centre for Social Research in Communication and executive dean of social and behavioral sciences.

Her research focuses on intergroup language and communication in health. He has conducted and published research on globalization, nongovernmental organizations, information and communication technology, and global social justice. He is currently the principal investigator on a grant to study global social justice activism, funded by the Marsden Foundation of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

Her research interests include theories of communication rights and media justice; digital inclusion; data profiling, online surveillance, and privacy; politics of communication policymaking; and media activism. She was a Carnegie scholar and is a founding member and treasurer of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. She is the co-editor of three books on meta-analytic contributions to the communication discipline. Cecilie Gaziano owns a consulting business, Research Solutions, Inc.

Ken Gelder is professor of literary and cultural studies at the University of Melbourne, Australia, where he teaches contemporary literature, genre fiction, and sub-cultural studies. He has published three books on Australian literature and cultural politics, including with Jane M. He is currently co-writing a book on contemporary Australian fiction and is coordinating a large-scale project on colonial Australian popular fiction, which includes the production of a digital archive as well as a series of anthologies on colonial popular genres.

Salma I. Her areas of research interest include agenda setting, framing, social issues and the media, and coverage of the Middle East. Eytan Gilboa is professor of international communication and chair of the communication program at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, and a visiting professor of public diplomacy at the Annenberg School of Communication, University of Southern California, USA.

His research has spanned many different intergroup contexts, including intergenerational relations around the Pacific Rim and civilian—police interactions. He is fellow and past president of the International Communication Association as well as the inaugural recipient of the Association's Career Productivity Award more recently named the Steven H. Chaffee Award. In she was invited to address the United Nations as one of five international experts on women, media, and information and communication technologies.

She lives in London. Prior to that she was appointed to the inaugural Council of the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, having established the Policy Department at the Independent Broadcasting Authority. Her research interests include the history of communication, mass media and terrorism, the effects of mass media, and social scientific methods. Theodore L. Glasser is a professor of communication at Stanford University, USA, where he is also affiliated to the modern thought and literature program.

In — he served as president of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. His current research and teaching interests include communication in conflict, negotiation, and mediation. Carroll J. Her research work explores emerging ethical responsibilities in human and medical genetics and the development of frameworks for ethical decision-making in these fields.

Daena J. Her research addresses couple communication about chronic health problems. Dennis S. A specialist in the area of communication in decision-making and problem-solving groups, Prof. Gouran has published in excess of books, chapters, and refereed articles dealing with this and related subjects. He has received numerous awards for his teaching, scholarship, and service. From to he was a lecturer in the Department of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, where he was director of the graduate programme in media and communications regulation and policy.

He continues to work with organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union and the Canadian government on projects involving communications technology and public safety.

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Karla K. Doris A. His primary research is in applied linguistics. Recent publications reflect his interest in the areas of sociocultural theory, cognitive linguistics, and service-learning. He has received two fellowships for his work in the last of these. Lawrence D. He is past president — of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric. He has published widely on the history of rhetoric in Europe, the United States, and Asia. Melanie C. John O. He has been identified as one of the top most productive researchers in the field of communication Communication Monographs , ; Communication Quarterly , He is a two-time recipient of the Gerald R.

Woolbert Research Award. She has done research on news magazine photographs of presidential candidates, anime-related websites, advergames, and religion in the virtual world Second Life. She teaches qualitative and quantitative research methods, media planning, and video game design, and is involved in developing a new curriculum on video games.

Rainer Greifeneder is research scientist and lecturer at the Universtiy of Mannheim, Germany. His research interests center on the role of meta-cognitive strategies in judgment and decision-making, with a particular focus on subjective experiences. Greifeneder also investigates individual differences in decision-making such as satisficing and maximizing strategies, and how individuals subjectively perceive change.

Robert J. His teaching and research focus on communication about environmental issues, energy, health, science, and risk. He has been principal investigator PI or co-PI on various federally funded research projects into environmental risk, and served on a National Research Council standing committee concerned with emerging issues in environmental contamination.

He is internationally known for his work in gambling and gaming addictions and has published over refereed research papers, three books, 75 book chapters, and over 1, other articles. He has worked extensively on media effects physiological, psychological, and social , media entertainment, media violence, news and news reception, political communication, and the development of empirical methods. Grimm is a member of the German FSF-board the organization for the voluntary self-regulation of television and chairman of the VFM society for the promotion of media research.

Her research areas include political communication and media—military relations. David J. Grimshaw is international team leader new technologies programme with Practical Action and visiting fellow at Cranfield School of Management, UK. Previously at the University of Leeds and Warwick Business School, UK, his research projects include business use of geographical knowledge, knowledge exploitation, and e-business.

Grimshaw has published many papers in academic journals, at international conferences, and in the professional press. Recent reports include Connecting the first mile and Podcasting in the Andes. Drawing on her teaching experience, her research includes an emphasis on experiential learning and first-year learning communities. Bruce E. He authored or edited 10 books on media theory and criticism, presidential campaigning, rhetorical criticism, argumentation, and public speaking, as well as dozens of articles and book chapters on such subjects.

His work focused on the intersection of rhetoric, politics, and media in the modern and contemporary eras. He holds degrees in technology education and mass communication. Alan G. Harmon and M.

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Daniel M. Gross is associate professor of English at the University of California, Irvine, USA, where he directs the composition program and teaches courses in the history and theory of rhetoric. He has published eight books and dozens of scholarly articles and chapters that focus mainly on media in eastern Europe. He has received fellowships, and research, lecture, and training awards and grants, from, among other institutions, Harvard University's Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, J.

In , Dr. James E. He is the author or co-author of five books on public relations and has published articles, books, chapters, papers, and reports. Grunig was the director of a year research project on Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. Laura K. She has published six books and over seventy articles and chapters on issues related to nonverbal and interpersonal communication.

Guerrero has received several research awards, including the Gerald R. She currently serves on eight editorial boards. Barrie Gunter is professor of mass communication at the University of Leicester, UK, where he is also head of the Department of Media and Communication. He serves on the editorial boards of six academic journals in media and communications. He is author of 44 books and over other publications on a range of media and communication topics, including news and audiences.

Albert C. His research focuses on the psychology of the mass media audience. He won the International Communication Association's outstanding article award for a hostile media effect study. Her research focuses on employing participatory approaches to social marketing; ethics in health communication interventions; disseminating rights information to the public, in particular to minority populations; involving citizens in policy issues; and using entertainment programs to advance social issues.

Kenneth L. He has edited two volumes on presidential candidates' images and one on digital democracy. He is currently working on a second book regarding digital democracy and is conducting research on how strategic political communication is used both in terrorist discourse and in counter-terrorist discourse. Robert A. He has written extensively on journalism, media representations, and social movements. His current work concerns journalism paradigms in relation to global climate crisis.

Her research and teaching address the transformation of media and journalism in central and eastern Europe as well as media systems and journalism cultures. She was the co-founder of the study and research program International Journalism at the University of Dortmund, Germany, where she worked from until From until she was a board member of the European Journalism Training Association. Nina Haferkamp holds an endowed junior professorship for emerging communications and media at Dresden University of Technology, Germany.

Her research work explores social psychological aspects of social media. She has published several papers on the usage and effects of social networking sites, blogs, and social games. Lutz M. His research focuses on assessing media performance and on the production, uses, and effects of news. His main area of research is sexology in a public health perspective, with emphasis on pornography.

His research on pornography includes epidemiological, experimental, and meta-analytic studies using both heterosexual and homosexual samples in a variety of populations. He is also a clinical psychologist and specialist in clinical sexology. Michael L. Haley is executive director of the International Communication Association. Pingitore, R. Scheffler, T.

Cultural Development and the Open Economy: A Democratic Issue and a Challenge to Public Policy

Sentell, and D. Dominik and has published various articles on the speeches, letters, and rhetorical works of Cicero. Most recently he has completed a book on politeness and politics in Cicero's letters, and has written and produced two DVDs on the performative aspects of Cicero's oratory. His research interests include strategic communication, including message design.

KG, Hamburg, Germany. Martin E. Halstuk is associate professor of communications at the Pennsylvania State University, USA, where he teaches communications law. Lauren M. Her research foci examine deception from both the production and reception perspectives, and health communication. Cees J. Hamelink is professor emeritus of international communication at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

He is professor of public health and human rights at the Free University Amsterdam, professor for management of information and knowledge at the University of Aruba, and honorary professor at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. His main research interests are argumentation, message production, persuasion, and conflict management.

Thomas Hanitzsch is professor of communication at the University of Munich, Germany. A former journalist, his teaching and research focus on global journalism cultures, war coverage, celebrity news, and comparative methodology. Hans V. Hansen is associate professor of philosophy in the University of Windsor, Canada. Marie Hardin is associate professor of journalism at Pennsylvania State University, USA, where she is also associate director for research in the university's Center for Sports Journalism.

She has published extensively in the areas of gender and sports media representations and the experiences of women in the sports newsroom. Sibylle Hardmeier works as a political and social scientist in Berlin, Germany, and Zurich, Switzerland. Her research focuses on political communication and public opinion; political behavior; and gender, representation, and democracy.

Teresa M. Her research focuses on democratic processes in organizations and the relationship between democracy and communication technologies. Joy L. Her research and teaching interests center on health, organizational, and interpersonal communication. She has published a number of journal articles and book chapters and is currently completing a book on workers' narratives of plant closings. In the past, she has worked at several universities in the UK, Belgium, and Germany, in both research and teaching positions.

She has published widely in the field, concentrating primarily on new media and everyday life, and on cyberculture and the domestication concept. The latter interest has grown out of her work with the European Media, Technology, and Everyday Life network. Tilo Hartmann is an assistant professor of communication research at the Free University Amsterdam, the Netherlands. His research interests are in the psychological aspects of media choice and exposure. He was a long-time assistant to Hans Mathias Kepplinger in Mainz.

Working at a desk at the Allensbach Institute, Germany, at the time of writing, he divides his time between publication projects at Dresden Technical University, Germany, and health communication research at the University of Lugano, Switzerland. His principal subjects of research are intellectuals, alternative media, the Global Justice Movement, and anti-Americanism.

He has taught undergraduate and graduate courses at the University of Rennes 2 and the Catholic University of the West in the field of political sociology, sociology of communication, and globalization. Jake Harwood is professor of communication and former director of the graduate program in gerontology at the University of Arizona, USA.

He has published more than 70 journal articles and book chapters. His main research interests are individual patterns of media use; transnational audiences and public spheres; and media qualities and public service. He has written several books, mainly on the legal history of the press, media, and communication in Malaysia, delving into press freedom and responsibility. His current research interest is propaganda, terrorism, and information and communication technologies. She has published numerous theoretical and critical essays on classical and contemporary rhetoric.

Kathleen C. She studies telephone talk in broadcasting, emergency services, and other institutional contexts. She has served as an officer of the Language and Social Interaction Divisions of the International Communication Association secretary, — , the Western States Communication Association chair, — and the National Communication Association vice chair elect, —. Robert Hassan is a senior research fellow in the media and communications program at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Gerard A. He specializes in rhetorical theory and criticism.

Richard Hawkins is professor and Canada Research Chair in science, technology, and innovation policy at the University of Calgary, Canada. In addition to academic work, Dr.

Cultural and Critical Studies 2003 Abstracts

Andrew F. Hayes conducts research on statistical methods and public opinion and teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in statistical methods and research design. He has been a Fulbright senior scholar at three Nigerian universities. He edited the first book on the Nigerian video boom and has written numerous articles on the subject. His areas of interest include ethics, organizational communication, communication theory, research methods, communication apprehension, and intercultural and interpersonal communication.

Heath , professor emeritus of communication, University of Houston, USA, has published 20 books and more than articles and chapters. He has lectured extensively around the world, consulted, and won many academic and professional association awards for his publications. His academic work has concentrated on issues management, crisis management, and risk communication, as well as advancing the connections between the rhetorical heritage and public relations theory and practice.

He has explored the nature and role of corporate social responsibility that truly commits organizations to serve society, making it more fully functioning, rather than merely advance their agentic self-interests. Lorna Heaton is associate professor of communication at the University of Montreal, Canada. Radha S. Her research focuses on the subject of gender, globalization, migration, and global media flows. Don Heider is an author, researcher, and award-winning broadcast news journalist. He spent 10 years working in TV news as a photographer, reporter, producer, and manager.

During his career he received five Emmy awards, a regional Edward R. Murrow, and a Tennessee Associated Press Award. His current work focuses on the effects of contextual changes economic, technological, cultural, and political on journalism. His research interests include journalism and new media, the changing journalistic profession, and journalism ethics.

He has directed and participated in several national and international research projects on the changing nature of journalism in the age of the net. Amanda R. She received the Walter G. McMillen Memorial Reward for Parkinson's disease Research from the American Psychological Association to help her conduct her dissertation research on how the symptoms of Parkinson's disease affect first impressions and social relationships.

His main research field is the sociology of technology with a focus on the politics of surveillance, the militarization of urban space, and evaluation methodology. His current research lies broadly in the field of media and cultural history. Before joining the University of Westminster, he was a senior producer for the BBC, specializing in news and current affairs documentaries. He was spokesman of the media sociology section of the German Communication Association from to Cultural citizenship, popular culture, media, and diversity form her research interests.

Her research focuses on the linguistic and social aspects of communication mediated by new technologies, especially with regard to gender, interaction management, classification, and discourse analysis methodologies. James K. His research has focused on press coverage of social protest, political communications, and health communications.

Current research focuses on minor political parties and candidate experience with the media during electoral campaigns. Bradford W. Kim D. His research focuses on the effects of social context on communication. His publications include three edited books, 36 refereed journal articles, and 24 book chapters. Her research focuses on the influence of communication on political and health-related behaviors. Her research interests include legal discourse, medical discourse, language and gender, and the evolution of communication. Janny C. She was a part-time professor in direct marketing at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, —, and since then has been a professor at the University of Groningen.

Her research interests include the development of the marketing concept, customer relationship management, market orientation, customer lifetime value, direct marketing, and e-commerce. She speaks frequently at scientific and practitioners' conferences. In she was awarded the Direct Marketer of the Year award by the Dutch direct marketing association. Lindsay H. Hoffman has received top paper awards from the International Communication Association and the Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research, and publishes political communication and public opinion research in both national and international journals.

Amanda J. A recent graduate of Purdue University, USA, she twice received doctoral fellowships to support her research and was the recipient of awards recognizing both outstanding scholarship and outstanding teaching. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, a research fellow at the Joan Shorenstein Center, Harvard University, and a guest researcher at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Her research interests include political communication and electoral communication in particular, media systems, and European media policy.

She has authored and edited numerous books and has published widely in German and international journals. She teaches courses in public relations, strategic communication management, and research at undergraduate and graduate level. Before joining the University of South Florida in she practiced communication for 25 years.

Holtzhausen is a recipient of the Pathfinder Award from the US Institute of Public Relations for her original research agenda on postmodern public relations and continues to consult on strategic communication in the USA and South Africa. Gregory G. His dissertation research focuses on the foreign policy opinion gap between leaders and the general public.

Katharina Holzinger is professor of international relations at the University of Constance, Germany. She is vice president of the German Political Science Association and a member of the editorial board of several political science journals. She has published in the field of political communication and deliberation, among others. At the University of Constance she directs a new research program on communicative dynamics of conflict and conflict resolution, and she teaches in an MA program on public administration and conflict management.

James M. He has published widely in more than 10 languages. He has spoken at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, on the processes of political socialization among parents and adolescents. He has also co-authored several book chapters on political socialization. Brant Houston is professor of journalism at the University of Missouri, USA, and executive director of Investigative Reporters and Editors, an international organization.

He was a reporter for 17 years. His main research topics have been: party—press relations, longitudinal changes in the structure of the newspaper industry, the profession of journalists, and the history of journalism and newspapers. Her research area concerns the development and interventions of communication apprehension.

She was the chair of the Communication Apprehension and Competence Division of the National Communication Association from to She studied communication, political science, and computer science. Her current research projects focus on real and presumed media effects. Heather E. Her research focuses on applications of information and communication technologies for socio-economic development and policies to extend affordable access to new technologies and services in rural and developing regions.

Hudson has planned or evaluated communication projects in northern Canada, Alaska, and more than 50 developing countries and emerging economies. She has also consulted for the private sector, government agencies, consumer and indigenous organizations, and international organizations. She is the author of numerous articles and several books. His research interests include alternative media and participatory communication for social change.

He has published two books and over articles on media violence and aggression. Michael E. Huge is a research associate at Ohio State University's School of Communication, USA, where his research interests include public opinion, political communication, and science communication. Her research endeavors center on documenting how and why affective states, such as mood or emotion, impact message processing and decision-making. She has published research concerning deception detection accuracy and the motivations underlying nontraditional opposite-sex relationships. Craig R.

His scholarship focuses on the development of the functional theory of attitudes, emotion as both a route for and goal of persuasion, and quantitative research methodology. His research follows the implicit goals of advancing theory and having practical importance; e. He teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in health communication, persuasion, interpersonal communication, and research methods. His previous writings include both books and articles considering sexual rights and the effects of pornographic media and legal strategies for pornography regulation or deregulation.

He has previously worked as a corporate attorney in Silicon Valley and has co-written and co-directed an independent feature film in Hollywood. Holly R. Hutchins is a retired senior corporate communications executive with plus years experience with several major US companies, including Georgia-Pacific Corp. Hutchins has also served as an adjunct professor at the University of Houston, USA, and Central Oregon Community College in Bend, Oregon, USA, teaching graduate and undergraduate seminars in investor relations, business communications, and public relations management.

She continues to serve on the editorial boards of several journals in the field. Currently he is working on a book on communication technologies and socio-political change in the Arab region. His research is focused on the economics of creative cultures, social media, marketing and advertising, video avatars communication, mobile communication, creative diplomacy, and global brands.

He has published over 20 journal articles and book chapters, as well as two books. Two other books are in preparation. His current research focuses on the rhetoric and media coverage of corporate social responsibility. Dirven and R. His interests are media effects, political communication, and journalism. He is the editor of several books, e. Katie L. Her research focuses on early twentieth-century rural rhetoric and women's public address. She teaches courses on visual politics and the role of visual argument in US public culture.

Joel O. His research focuses on communication of knowledge and identity primarily in nonprofit organizational contexts. James D. Ivory has conducted research on the content, users, and effects of digital games, simulations, and virtual environments, as well as other research on social dimensions of media and communication technologies.

Iyengar also writes regularly for Washingtonpost. Matt Jackson is head of the Department of Telecommunications at Pennsylvania State University, USA, where he teaches and conducts research on free speech, telecommunications law and policy, and copyright law. He has published articles in a variety of law reviews, communication journals, and edited volumes.

He is past president of the Participatory Communication Research Section of the International Association of Media and Communication Research, and has over 50 publications in the form of co-edited books, book chapters, and journal articles. His research focuses on media economics and the political economy of conflict and appropriation. Her research focuses on media economics and gender issues in new media. Bernard J. He has received several awards and honors, including an Association of Computing Machinery Research Award and six application development awards, along with other writing, publishing, research, and leadership honors.

She is currently working on both early twentieth-century American media history and communication and neo-liberalism. Otfried Jarren is vice president for humanities and social sciences and professor of media and communication studies, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)
The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)
The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)
The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)
The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)

Related The Persian Gulf TV War (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries)

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