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Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. Custard apple fruits showed a broad LAB species diversity, such as Ec. Regarding the presence of LAB on flowers, Ec. On medlar flowers, as well as on the fruits, Leuc. Other Lactobacillus species, such as Lb. Linjordet, were isolated from wild flowers. Linjordet conducted a detailed study, during which W.
Some of these LAB species, such as F. Carina Audisio et al. The lactic microbiota of guava, passion fruit, medlar, khaki, and flowers of passion fruit, custard apple, and medlar was reported for the first time during the present study. No new LAB species could be isolated from the samples studied. The carbohydrates present in the isolation media as well as the isolation methods employed strongly influence the success for the isolation of LAB from specific niches.
Direct isolation is generally used if cells are present in high numbers, as in feces and fermented foods; however, if microbial cells are present in low numbers and specific species are sought, culture enrichment before bacterial isolation should be applied. This methodology presents the disadvantage that only some species, showing fast cell growth, will grow at the cost of others, eliminating competition from those with slower growth.
One of the main factors responsible for this selection is the growth substrate, since the use of specific carbon sources is generally different at species level Endo et al. In this work, culture enrichment using fructose as a carbon source for the isolation of FLAB was conducted. Several authors isolated LAB from flowers and fruits using this methodology Antunes et al. In general, glucose is the most easily metabolizable substrate for the majority of microorganisms, including LAB, and therefore the most used carbohydrate for bacterial isolation and culturing Antunes et al.
The Genera of Lactic Acid Bacteria : Wilhelm H. Holzapfel :
However, several studies have suggested that some species have evolved by adapting to their niches to survive and preferring to metabolize other specific carbohydrates; this may be the case for FLAB that, when inhabiting fructose-rich niches such as fruits, may have lost their ability to mainly metabolize glucose during adaptation and hence preferring fructose as a carbon source to grow Endo et al.
In our work, the use of fructose allowed isolating the fructophilic species F. Endo et al. It has been claimed that the microbial population present on plants and their parts, including flowers and fruits, may be subjected to nutritional fluctuations, and physicochemical and environmental conditions, as well as to dispersal events Samuni-Blank et al.
Plant-associated habitats roots, leaves, flowers, fruits or decaying tissues differ in their local availability of nutrients and physicochemical conditions, conditioning the range of potential microbiota. For instance, floral nectar has been regarded merely as a sweet aqueous secretion offered by flowering plants to attract pollinators.
Nevertheless, pollinators act not only as pollen vectors, but at the same time they can transport microorganisms from flower to flower Alvarez-Perez et al. Also, it has been demonstrated that nectar microbial community may vary among different plant species Fridman et al.
All this background, might explain the variations regarding LAB diversity present on flowers and fruits reported in the literature so far. Fruits and flowers are fructose-rich plant parts that heterofermentative LAB inhabit; many of these bacteria being able to reduce this sugar and to produce mannitol Filannino et al. According to the literature, several strains of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Fructobacillus , and Oenococcus are capable of producing mannitol from fructose Saha and Racine, Although to date Lb.
Likewise, all described species of the genus Fructobacillus , normally isolated from fructose-rich niches such as flowers, fruits and insect intestines, can convert fructose into mannitol as a result of their peculiar fructophilic metabolism Endo et al. Filannino et al. Other plant-associated species such as Lb. Diacetyl is undoubtedly another industrially interesting compound that contributes to the flavor of many fermented foods and can be naturally synthesized by LAB. The ability to form diacetyl was present in all genera, except for Weissella ; strains of Lb. The most important diacetyl-producing LAB species are Lc.
Some LAB possess esterase activity Liu et al. In the present work, the EA h was strain-specific; in addition, substrate specificity was different among different LAB genera and species. Although not many studies on LAB strains isolated from fruit sources exist, this observation coincides with that reported for strains using other matrices Oliszewski et al. Similarly, Oliszewski et al. Matthews et al. Likewise, Taboada et al.
The EA h values determined in the present work were varied, the Lc. Oliszewski et al.
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Taboada et al. Similarly, the strain Lb. Nardi et al. Most of the strains of LAB species present in wine, namely Oenococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus , possess esterase activity Sumby et al. Further, several studies highlight the biosynthesis of fruity esters by O. As mentioned elsewhere, in addition to hydrolysis, esterases also have the ability to synthesize esters by esterification of fatty acids and ethanol. These ethyl esters, even in very low amounts, play an important role in the development of the fruity organoleptic characteristics of some foods Taboada et al.
In this work, the ability to produce ethyl esters through esterification by 8 selected LAB strains with EA h was evaluated. When studying particularly the biosynthesis of ethyl butanoate by dairy LAB, Liu et al. All the strains studied in the present work could synthesize at least one ethyl ester from the two substrates assayed as well as the strains studied by Costello et al. The fruit- and flower-origin strains of the present study produced ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and ethyl butanoate from butanoic acid and hexanoic acid, unlike the vinification LAB strains that produced mainly ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate from the corresponding fatty acid precursors Costello et al.
In the present work, the studied strains produced 3 types of ethyl esters when butanoic acid was used as substrate, unlike when using hexanoic acid, which led to the biosynthesis of ethyl acetate 2 strains and ethyl propionate 2 strains. Regarding the biosynthesis of ethyl butanoate, strains of Lb. Also, Liu et al. As mentioned above, all strains studied produced ethyl acetate from butanoic acid, which is not a direct precursor of this ester.
The mechanism involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. Some authors Liu et al. Noticeably, when comparing the EA h and REA activities of the strains of this study, their ability to hydrolyze esters of a certain length was not always correlated with the capacity to produce ethyl esters of the same length Figure 4 ; these results may be explained by the presence of more than one esterase enzyme with different specificities Oliszewski et al. Native cultures are preferred to allochthonous starters for food fermentation since indigenous strains display shorter latency phases and better acidification capacity.
For the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures for fruit and vegetable fermentations, the bacterial capacity to lower the matrix pH to values below 4. Since rapid growth and acidification rates are conventional criteria for the selection of starter cultures, these parameters were studied. In general, acidification kinetics and growth parameters were variable among the LAB strains examined, in coincidence with findings of LAB from plant matrices Filannino et al.
Although the absolute values of the parameters studied were strain-dependent, a slight tendency of lactococci and fructobacilli to grow and acidify more rapidly than the other bacteria was noticed, the lowest values being observed for Weissella and Lactobacillus strains. Fessard et al. These values were lower than those found in the present work and much lower than for other LAB 0. The same researchers found that strains of W.
More recently, Fessard et al. Analyzing some particular cases in our study, the strain of Lb. Although acidification kinetics has been widely used as a tool to monitor fermentation performance, this parameter it is not frequently used in vegetable or fruit fermentations and the LAB starters related to them Fessard et al. Different microbial acidifying capacities are needed depending on the type of fermented product; on one side, rapid acidification i.
Then, autochthonous strains of Lb. Thus, the diversity on the growth and acidification parameters shows the potential of the strains of our study to be used in starter culture formulations for different fermentation processes. In nature, several microorganisms are capable of synthesizing pectinases, a complex set of hydrolytic enzymes that cleave pectic substances that constitute a large part of the vegetable raw materials Sakellaris et al. In our work, 43 strains representative of the 6 genera assayed capable of hydrolyzing citrus pectin were found.
Sakellaris et al. Karam and Belarbi studied the presence of pectinolytic activity in 80 LAB strains isolated from milk in Algeria, of which only 4 strains 2 Lb. Vidhyasagar et al. Chatterjee et al. The pectinolytic activity of strains of Enterococcus and Fructobacillus species was qualitatively revealed for the first time in the present work. Further studies are needed to characterize these enzymes. Considering that human tissues and biological fluids do not possess esterases capable of hydrolyzing esters of phenolic acids for example, chlorogenic acid , bacterial cinnamoyl esterases present in starter cultures could enrich plant matrices in free phenolic acids with high bioavailability for man Filannino et al.
For this reason, the presence of cinnamoyl esterases in LAB from flowers and fruits was evaluated. The species capable of hydrolyzing ethyl ferulate were Lc. Esteban-Torres et al. Later, the same authors Esteban-Torres et al. To date, studies on cinnamoyl esterase activity of LAB strains isolated from flowers and fruits remain scarce.
Interestingly, data on Lc. Histamine is recognized as the causative agent of scombroid poisoning, whereas tyramine consumption has been linked to food-induced migraines and hypertensive crisis in patients who consume monoamine oxidase inhibitor drugs. In turn, putrescine and cadaverine can potentiate the toxicity of the previous amines and, in addition, be precursors of carcinogenic nitrosamines. From all strains evaluated, only three Lb. Similarly, tyramine was the main BA formed by Enterococcus, Carnobacterium , and some Lactobacillus strains in the studies conducted by Bover-Cid and Holzapfel and by Leuconostoc strains in the work of Moreno-Arribas et al.
To date, very few strains of Lb. On the other hand, Tomita et al. The results obtained during the present study supported the hypothesis that LAB strains isolated from fruits and flowers from Northern Argentina could be exploited from a biotechnological point of view. Strains capable of producing mannitol, organic acids, and aroma compounds were found; in addition, strains harboring cinnamoyl esterase, pectinase, and esterase activities, interesting properties to be used in fruit food matrices, were detected.
Differences between the results obtained for the fruit- and flower-origin LAB strains of the present study and those available in the literature could be explained by the diversity of substrates, fermentation protocols, and analyses used; but more importantly, they could be inherent to the microbial diversity existing in wild niches belonging to different regions of the world.
In this sense, this work provided a deeper insight into the lactic microbiota present on tropical fruits and flowers. In addition, the LAB strains isolated harbored interesting functional properties to be used in starter culture formulations for fruit-based fermented food products. LRR carried out the majority of the experiments and wrote the manuscript. FM and JB carried out some of the experiments. RM directed the esterases experiments.
LDV and EH corrected the manuscript. FeM directed the work and corrected the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank Dr. Ester synthesis by lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat's and ewe's milk and cheeses. Food Chemistry , — Alvarez-Perez, S. Zooming-in on floral nectar: a first exploration of nectar-associated bacteria in wild plant communities.
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