Apollonius, therefore, seems to expand upon the Stoic division of the case forms into nominative and oblique cases. Concerning the order of the cases The same logical scale is used to order the oblique cases within the passive state.
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Schneider, ed. Verbs for sight e. All other counterexamples among transitive verbs can be accounted for through derivation from an accusative that must be expressed by a dative, e. So although Apollonius does not intend to formulate a theory of case in this passage, his understanding of transitivity, and the correspondence of states to particular case forms can be understood in terms of the following oppositions Fig. Bina- rism is undeniable among the ancient grammarians. There is also a shift to tripartition. This happed as a result of several factors.
First, on occasion it would happen that a pair of cate- gories would not fit all the data. In our example, there are active and passive states, but these do not account for intransitive verbs.
Or, two entry conditions from different systems might intercept. Each of these spatial relations has a corresponding oblique case form, e. Instead case forms are discussed in the context of states that occurs within a broader discussion of transitivity and local relations within adverbial syntax. Although the Byzantine Grammarians which was comprised of both Greek and Latin scholars are typically perceived as a somewhat of a defection when compared to their Alexandrian predecessors—which can be seen in the relatively small amount of secondary literature devoted to the subject50—they do have some helpful comments regarding nominal morphology, and particularly grammatical case, that should be mentioned.
Varro, the Latin grammarian, for example, was the first to use declension declinatio with reference to inflectional morphology in general. More significant, however, are the comments found in Georgius Choeroboscus and other commentators on the Hellenistic Grammarian Theodosius and in Maximus Planudes, about whom there has been much discussion in terms of grammatical case.
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Georgius Choeroboscus Theodosius, as with Dionysius Thrax, was a significant teacher of gram- matical theory in the Greco-Roman world. These rules by Theodosius spawned a series of commentaries throughout the Byzantine period.
Defining “Word” in Modern Greek: A response to Philippaki-Warburton & Spyropoulos 1999
One of these commentators was Georgius Choeroboscus —ad ,52 a lecturer on grammar at the university in 50 Robins, Byzantine Grammarians, is the only monograph I am aware of devoted entirely to developing the grammatical thought of linguistic theorists in the Byzantine period. This is a relatively small amount of work when compared the multiple volumes of research that have been produced exploring the Ancient Greek grammarians, as seen illustrated only partially in the analysis above.
For discussion, see Wilson, Scholars, 69— This makes his observations especially pertinent to the project of this chapter. Even more significant is his analysis of grammatical case which is substantially more developed than what we find in any of the ancient Hellenistic grammarians.
The relevant passage on the case system is found in I. Several things should be noted form this passage. He claims that the nominative does not actually admit case-inflection, but is inflected into cases—the genitive, dative, and accusative, respec- tively. Similar suggestions are made for the vocative as well. Another argu- ment he marshals for not understanding the nominative and vocative as cases is based upon what the forms they designate.
Again, the commentator states that the meaning of the nominative is found in its signification of the pure nominal idea. Therefore, the oblique cases seem to be viewed—though in a very unde- veloped way—as conditions i. The nominative, on the other hand, states the essence of a thing free from semantic condition.
These noteworthy developments warrant several remarks: 1 Robins asserts that this semantic contrast between the nominative and the oblique was a mishap on the part of these grammarians since they did not have the more refined syntactic categories—subject and object—which we currently employ to describe the language.
It appears that there is more to case than mere syntactic relations and that there is more to the contrast between nominative and oblique cases than that between a subject and object case. But this seems to me to best captured by the idea of a relation to the essence.
Robins, Byzantine Grammarians, Cases are now situated and discussed in a thoroughly linguistic con- text. The philosophical baggage that originally attended the notion of case is noticeably absent—case forms are now defined, at least partly, as a class of words inflected in a certain way and this is assumed to be part of a generally accepted definition for cases. This allows, to some extent, for the cases to be treated as a system that allows authors to make a semantic choice rather than a merely morphological one as is the case in Dionysius —the choice to state a pure nominal idea or to state a relation to a nominal idea.
Maximus Planudes The Palaeologan59 linguist and grammarian, Maximus Planudes — , has been the subject of some recent debate over grammatical case. Planudes was a classicist concerned with Greek poetry as early as and the breadth of his interest spanned linguistic, literary and scientific texts. It is at least arguable that the essence of such a theory as far as the three oblique cases in Greek are concerned was outlined by Maximus Planudes. Robins,64 among others,65 represents a school of linguists who see Planu- des as the founder of the localist theory of case.
Others are not as con- vinced. On the Palaeologan Revival, see Wilson, Scholars, — John M.
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Reidel, , 20—47; cf. Langage 7. The text in Blank is nicely abbre- viated for analysis, which I use as the base text here. These two remained distinct notions for both grammarians. But this says nothing of local origin. A few brief points summarize and expand upon our discussion. Judy Sery-Barski Judy Sery. I can't hear you, I'm listening to The Sisters of Mercy creative writing lined notebook Promoting band fandom and music creativity thro Like Band Notebooks. I can't hear you, I'm listening to The Smiths creative writing lined notebook Promoting band fandom and music creativity thro I can't hear you, I'm listening to The Velvet Underground creative writing lined notebook Promoting band fandom and music creativity thro I can't hear you, I'm listening to Warren Zevon creative writing lined notebook Promoting band fandom and music creativity thro I can't hear you, I'm listening to Waylon Jennings creative writing lined notebook Promoting band fandom and music creativity thro Raul Jimenez Felipe Vasconcelos.
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