Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama

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Rushdie, Hamid, Aslam, Shamsie

The article gives numerous citations taken from the five mathnavs andalso from the lesser-known Dvn. Brgel shows how animals may func-tion as medium for self-knowledge, though this role is mostly played bywoman, the psychagogue par excellence in the Khamsa! The bulk of present-day studies on Classical Persian literature focuseson mysticism.

It might be correct to say that for the last two decades, themajority of scholars in the field have concentrated on the analysis of mysti-cal Persian poets. Fascinating though this approach might be it regretfullypushes the study of non-mystical authors somewhat in the shadow. Opinions vary on whether Nizm belongs to this latter group. It is gener-ally accepted that several of his works display a tendency towards mysti-cism, while others seem rather to refer to philosophy or morality. It is thusparticularly rewarding to look at the contributions by Asghar Seyed-Gohrab and Leili Anvar, who approach Nizm from a mystical point ofview, with the analytical tools and scholarly technique and discourse usedto interpret sufi-authors.

Nizm rises to the occasion and yields interestingpoints for this interpretative research. In A Mystical Reading of NizmsUse of Nature in the Haft Paykar, Seyed-Gohrab convincingly argues thatthe poet sees nature as an object of reflection that reveals the divine ra-tional order by which man can achieve sublimation, but also as a cryptfrom which man is supposed to escape. The Brethren of Purity are shownto have had an influence on Nizm. Desire is a passion that never reaches satisfaction in this world,and is expressed in the theme of hollowness, of movement towards no-thingness.

Anvar also studies the imagery of Layl and of the pearl, whichis also a metaphor for Nizms own poetry. But what about analysing Nizms words with a view to gauge his atti-tude to and familiarity with Islamic tenets? This is what underlies the re-searches of both Patrick Franke and Carlo Saccone. In Drinking from theWater of Life. He focuses on this amongst Nizms abundantimagery drawn from Islamic lore and shows how the poet significantlytransforms the theme. Khizr occurs both in the Haft Paykar, in his role asrescuer of a hero in times of need, and in the Sharaf Nma in connection. But Nizm is innovative as,in the Prologue to the Sharaf Nma, he also asks Khizr to inspire him withpoetic originality.

This latter role of Khizr survives in later poetry and willeven appear in Goethes and Iqbls verses. In the former two episodes, Alexander acts as legislatorand protector. But when meeting the Perfect Men and the young Peasant,he reaches the limits of sovereignty and cannot add anything or act in abeneficial way.

Saccone thus analyses Nizms view on righteous kingshipthat goes beyond the accepted Muslim appro Aleksander Gog Magog Download Report. Published on Nov View 65 Download 9. A Key to the Treasure of the Hakm Iranian Studies Series The Iranian Studies Series publishes high-quality scholarship on variousaspects of Iranian civilisation, covering both contemporary and classicalcultures of the Persian cultural area. Chief Editor:A. Brgel and C. The vo-lume contains a wide spectrum of literary criticism, which echoes the depth and variety of the poets thoughts.

Armagedon,,, gog y magog Documents. Mensaje sobre el inicio… Documents. Fairholt, f. According to the head of the team, Riris Sarumpaet, the quality of the books has been increasing compared to that of those submitted last year. Alfons Taryadi, May The award was in the form of charter of recognition and a sum of money to the amount of Rp.

The publishers of titles awarded were given charters of recognition. Alfons Taryadi, January President Abdurahman Wahid's written keynote speech for the event recognized book publishing as an essential part of the people's education in the effort to create a just, transparent, and open society. Among the issues, brought forward in the meeting, was the need for professional training in almost all areas of book publishing, and for the developing of a cooperative venture to pool and disseminate information on the publishing industry and on books in print, and to improve the distribution of books, particularly to remoter regions.

Another important issue was the need to produce quality books, which are an important means of promoting civil society, human rights, good governance, and other development priorities. Likewise, the need to support regional works and quality children's books was stressed in the discussion. It was noteworthy that in the discussion, the Program Pustaka, a crash programme to subsidize books of quality, run by Yayasan Adikarya IKAPI with funding from the Ford Foundation, due to its successful performance since , was mentioned as a model for projects to promote books targeted to meet specific needs.

The symposium took place in Jakarta, during the Indonesia Book Fair, which was held from 17 to 22 October The meeting, financially supported by the Ford Foundation, will discuss future strategies of support for book publishing and reading in Indonesia, which have been declining drastically since the economic crisis began to hit Indonesia in mid Materials to be discussed in the meeting are to come from the outcome of a publishing conference to be held in the third week of September with participants consisting of Indonesian publishers, writers, intellectuals, distributors, librarians and other agents in book publishing.

The objectives of the above mentioned activities are; 1 to promote broader dissemination of information and ideas designed to strengthen civil society, democracy, just governance, human rights, and equity; 2 to promote a greater appreciation of the importance of the publishing industry's role in this dissemination and in contributing meaningfully to political, social, and institutional change, and 3 to address the short-term limits placed on the industry's ability to perform this role by prevailing economic conditions, as well as the long-term need to strengthen the sustainability of the industry so that it can perform this role in the future.

Speaking about HPI's future programme, Prof. Hoed stressed the importance of improving the quality of HPI's members, and enhancing their dignity by seeing to it that their names as translators appear in the front cover of their copyrighted work of translation. Besides, HPI is going to develop a standardized system of fees for translating services, which so far vary greatly.

Furthermore, according to Prof. Hoed, HPI's newsletters will be issued regularly, while other programmes consist of discussions, workshops, and seminars on various significant and actual topics in the field of translation. As a start, the newly revitalized HPI organized a seminar in June on the relativity of translation featuring Prof.

In the end of July, Prof. Hoed departed for Boston and will stay there for about one year. In his absence, Dr. The same award will also be delivered to Prof. Yus Rusyana 62 from Bandung, Suparto Brata 68 from Surabaya, and I Gede Dharma 69 from Bali, for their contributions to the development of language and literature of their respective regions. Seven hundred international publishers displayed almost 35, titles of books in several languages in various fields such as medicine, engineering, art, architecture, philosophy, economics, literature, the humanities, science, and management which have been published during the past two years.

The fair was being held concurrently with Iran's Research Week, and all the books were sold at a special discount. Sponsored by the Institute for the Distribution of International Publishers, the fair continued until 17 December at the fairground. Several years ago, Turkey ranked first with , volumes of handwritten books and was followed by Iran, India and Pakistan respectively.

However currently, Iran has , volumes of handwritten books at Iran National Library, and a number of other private libraries. In the past several months, some or volumes of handwritten books have been presented to Iran National Library. Iran National Library will launch a treasury soon to keep privately owned handwritten books in trust.

Iran National Library currently has contracts with London and Dubai libraries for exchange of microfilms and has planned to sign similar contracts with libraries in Egypt, Turkey, India and Pakistan. Its objective is to select the most successful publications printed for children and young adults in the past two years. The five-day festival was divided into several sections and some of the participants had half a century's experience in the field. A total of 30 publications on issues relating to children and young adults were taking part in the festival.

Kayhan-e Bache-ha Children's Kayhan , which is one of the nation's oldest publications for children, is now 50 years old. It has 20 types of publications including weekly and monthly ones. Kayhan publishes weekly magazines for the year-old age group as well as for those aged There was also Bache-ha Gol Agha , the satirical weekly, which is the first and only satirical publication for children and young adults. It has been published regularly for the past seven years for students of junior high schools.

Epic of the Persian Kings

This weekly is filled with satire and caricatures and sometimes it has reports about animation works, introducing artists involved in this field of art. For reference: www. It is the only daily magazine for children and young adults, and has been published for the past eight years. It carries news about sports, social, cultural, and artistic events as well as a daily report. The event provided the children a chance to attend a number of workshops ranging from story telling, language learning with new media, film screening, book exhibition, etc.

In the workshops, children experienced singing and acting through simple performances. Also they were encouraged to develop their imagination, write stories, draw pictures, discover and explore new ideas. Over children from different schools in Tehran took part in this event. This festival has surely formed a link between arts of children in different age-groups and different countries paving the way for dialogue between civilizations and cultures. At the end of each day there was an "Evaluation Gathering" in which the teachers and instructors had a round-table-discussion of the workshops and exchanged their experiences and gave their highlights and remarks on their workshops.

The MOW is sponsored by UNESCO in member states with a view to bringing world attention to the task of safeguarding endangered and unique library and archive collections, reconstituting dispersed or displaced holdings and collections and improving access to these materials. For example, during meetings held in the sideline section of the 57th Frankfurt International Book Fair September , the Iran Book House exchanged information with Intelligent Publishing Supply Network ISPN and other international data banks in order to boost cultural relationships.

However, Iranian publishers are not very familiar with international laws for developing relationships with other countries because they have not taken part in international book fairs for a long time. Iranian publishers' main problem is also the fact they do not observe international copyright regulations yet, and the few publishers in the country who cooperate with foreign publishers sign agreements that are not officially recognized in Iran. There is also the 2nd Quran Artistic Festival currently being held at the Niavaran Cultural Center in which ten foreign-made spiritual films are screened on the sidelines of this festival.

It runs until 12 November. A total of paintings, 22 miniature works, 19 sculptures, and 12 modern artworks selected by the jury are on display. Iranian artists have used the art of calligraphy to create artworks with religious themes for many years. An exhibition entitled "Eastern Art" is being held simultaneously at the Tehran Academy of Art, in which Iranian artists express their views on the subject. The award will be presented at the end of this year for the first time.

It will be given for a poetry book written by a non-Iranian poet and is not necessarily confined to Persian-speaking countries; so poets in other countries can also participate in the competition. The works will be selected in two phases; works from Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan will be judged in these respective countries first, and then three selected works will be sent to the society's jury members for the final judgment. Over 2, works from 48 countries were on display at this year's biennial. The prize will be presented to Golduzian in Tehran.

The anecdotes must be no longer than 88 words. CHN is organizing the competition to bridge the gap between old and new writers, publishers, internet users, and journalists across the globe through the internet. Interested writers can apply for the contest by submitting no more than three anecdotes to the CHN by 27 October The top works selected by the jury will later be published in a book. It included a collection of literary compositions, pottery, wood carvings, paintings, sculptures and postal cards created by these children.

Also a number of disabled citizens presented their capabilities in carpet-weaving, wood carving and inlaid works to the visitors at the fair. Art training workshops as well as short film screenings were among other programmes offered on the sidelines of the exhibition. The festival programme provided the opportunity to take a closer look at Andersen's life and work. It also attempted to promote wider awareness and appreciation of the Danish poet and storyteller in Iran.

As preparation, CBC had created a library database offering information on Andersen; also it had published a bibliography of Andersen's works and presented a collection of illustrations drawn for works of Andersen throughout the world and a CD containing his photos and articles. Also there were various exhibitions, workshops and meetings, such as an exhibition of original artworks of Iranian illustrators on Andersen's works; an exhibition of painting by children throughout Iran and some neighboring countries; an exhibition of his 57 titles translated into Farsi; workshops on different dimensions of his works; etc.

The CBC had organized a painting competition on Andersen's works for Iranian children, young adults, writers, researchers, and book illustrators. As part of the celebration, the winners of this grand competition were announced and awarded. Other exhibits included daily slide shows at the Forum Hall, and also the Farsi versions of Hans Christian Andersen's stories were published as books or magazines. It is said that Iran is one of the top 10 countries in the world in terms of book publication and ranks first among Islamic nations in publishing religious books.

He pointed out that 86 book exhibitions have been held since the Islamic Revolution, one of which is Tehran International Book Fair. Over publications with nationwide circulation including 66 mass-circulation dailies took part in the meet. With the slogan 'Press, Solidarity and Participation', the press festival began concurrently, and a total number of 1, national and local dailies and magazines also took part in this annual event.

Furthermore, 14 associations involved in the press field, 13 news agencies, one research centre, and 4 service institutions displayed their latest achievements. The topics of the books range from engineering, medical science, surgery, aerospace, political science, law and education, to Islamic and religious subjects. Kanoon, which is the publishing section of the Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults, and Madreseh Publications were selected as Iran's best state-run publishing houses in the field of children's books for the year The jury members included representatives of publishing houses based in Tehran and several other Iranian cities, as well as writers, illustrators, and literary experts.

Qadyani, Peydayesh, and Asatir publishers were named the top private sector publishers of books for adults, and Shabaviz publishing house was also honored in children section. SAMT and Ansarian were named the top public sector publishers of books for adults. This library, which was established in , has a collection of handwritten scripts, photographs, treatises and dissertations, publications about the Constitutional Movement.

The Central Library of Tehran University has proposed to the above four major libraries to set up a council to coordinate their management. The council, can be divided into two commissions--one of them dealing with specialized and academic books and the other focusing on public libraries. Those interested can obtain complete information about the library by visiting the following site www.

He said that, given the constant strides made in information technology and extensive use of the Internet in different areas, it is essential to provide users with access to cultural information. He added, "Given the wide scope of the network at the international level, diversity of users and their cultural backgrounds, production of indigenous programmes to introduce the country's rich culture is indispensable. And, "Some 40, titles in different fields are currently compiled, the details of which will be accessible via the book information dissemination network.

Speaking at a ceremony held to honour protectors of manuscript books in Iran, Dr. Seyyed Kazam Musavi said that the library will be moved to a new location covering , square metres in March According to him, "There is no doubt that the library is the largest in the Middle East. The organizers also held exhibitions of Asghar Mahdavi's works, prints of rare manuscript books, and a number of other books on the sidelines of the event.

The selected participants had the highest rate of book reading in the first half of the year. The Iranian calendar year began on 20 March The programme was organized during Iran's Book Week to encourage children to read books more and fill their spare time with book reading. Several book fairs were held and the best research works on literature for children and young adults were awarded during the week-long event.

Every year, according to the plan, books published for the first time in the two above-mentioned categories in various countriesother than Iran, will be reviewed, and a Plaque of Appreciation signed by Iran's President, and other valuable prizes, will be awarded to the creators of selected works. In the tenth Period, the books which were first published during in the two areas of Islamic studies and Iranian studies have been reviewed. As in previous periods, the review of the works was conducted through studying printed indexes, specialized magazines and publications, discussions and correspondence with Islamology and Iranology research centres, data banks, and reputable publishers, and consulting with Islamic scholars and theoreticians in the said field.

Efim A. Rezvan, St. Upon publication of the book in the Russian language, it immediately attracted the attention of scholars of Islam in various countries, and at present, it is being published in English, French, German, and Arabic. He said that the library currently owns 12, volumes of books in English, German, French, Italian and Russian, and 6, in Persian and Arabic. In a report released by the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, it has been mentioned that since archaeological excavations by foreign and Iranian experts expanded in Iran, the library's book collection became richer day by day.

At the festival, writers, illustrators and translators won fifty-three prizes; including a golden plaque, and Honorable Diplomas for their works published during The Head of Iran's Islamic Culture and Relations Organization ICRO referred to the cultural religious and artistic features of the two nations and mentioned that Iran is eager to enhance bilateral relations with Tatarstan in various fields.

Cultural and music festivals, translation of selected literary works by prominent figures from both sides, participation in joint cultural projects, exchange of writers and publishers, literary and poetry-reading sessions and gatherings for renowned poets and writers are some of the activities planned for the near future. It also provides bilateral cooperation in establishing centres for displaying and distributing the valuable works of distinguished literary figures from both countries.

Several programmes such as competitions, screening of religious films and seminars were also held. More than of the most precious art works in the country were displayed. In one of the sections, works by calligraphy masters and veteran artists are also being displayed. The traditional art workshop directly deals with Quranic learning. The report said that about Other popular subjects are novels, short stories and poems. Books on literature, history, psychology, art, social studies, politics and religion are also among the favourites.

Qazvin a central province has the most book readers while Shiraz a province in the south has the fewest, the report concluded. During the week, winners of the festival received prizes. Officials of the festival and factories distributed free coupons for books and also cultural products among laborers and their families. During the spring in , Nilchi said Iranian youth and young adults spent some 1. He added that at present there are 52 libraries in Tehran, of which twelve are open 24 hours. Nilchi announced that the total number of library staff and personnel, which stood at 23, in , reached , in , and that the number of people attending libraries increased by about percent compared to the last year.

He said he considered building new libraries a cultural investment, and that the government must provide adequate subsidies in order to make it possible for all of our people to have access to books. It said the number of books published amounted to 26,, volumes. A major portion of the publications were literary books. The museum is home to valuable Armenian cultural works such as handicrafts, costumes, and books. The smallest book in the world, weighing only 0. The book consists of 14 pages and was published in Germany on the occasion of the th anniversary of the death of Gutenberg.

A golden cross on a black background is the cover of the book. June , Mansoor Kadivar. Twenty-five thousand books from 9 Arab countries Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Egypt, and Morocco were also presented, including books on religion, history, politics, literature, lexicon, sociology, medicine, and electronics.

The President addressed the journalists and managing directors of newspapers and magazines. Khatami, whose visit was unexpected, also signed the remembrance books of different periodicals and encouraged the expansion of newspapers. Other events included the National Day of Afghanistan held at the Afghan pavilion in the presence of a number of cultural officials from the Afghan interim government, and a seminar on "Investigating the Rights of Book Publications in Iran" held on 6 and 7 May, attended by foreign and domestic guests.

Lili Hayeri Yazdi, May The jury of the secretariat, after reviewing the record of the annual activities of the publishers and their works printed in the year in the Iranian Solar Hijri Calender and under related regulations, selected and introduced the best publishers of the year, as follows: 1. Provincial Publishers: In this category the "Dali1-e-Ma Publications" was selected as the best publisher.

Also in this category the jury lauded "Farda Publications" from Isfahan. The Iranian Embassy distributed these books to almost 50 institutions in Afghanistan's capital city. They include social, educational, religious, and poetic works. In the past five years, the public library and other libraries in the city were closed, and many handwritten books along with other examples of Afghanistan's cultural heritage were destroyed.

The Director of Kabul's public library said that the books that have survived in Afghanistan are old and outdated, and do not include any information about modern technology and science. He asked the Islamic Republic of Iran and international cultural associations to assist the restoration of Afghanistan's libraries. Mansoor Kadivar, February During the Festival various ceremonies were performed which were open to the public. With regard to the above fields, the relevant juries selected the winners out of 6, press works received from 21 different publications.

During this festival, there was a daily programme by the name of "Theatrical Newspaper" in the form of street play which attracted many children. This kind of performance can be used in schools showing that besides board newspapers there are other ways to distribute news.

SAF maintains that the globalization of all human activities, exemplified by the applications of the Internet, has prepared the ground for a worldwide campaign to equip the younger generations of the developing world with the new and empowering information technologies enjoyed by the youth in the West. By acting now, this vision is within our reach. Mansoor Kadivar, November The jury mainly consisted of Iranian youth.

After weeks of evaluation and discussion, the best books of the year for young adults and adolescents received prizes from the Minister of Education. Minister of Education Morteza Haji said, "You should produce cultural works and try to attract the attention of the public by performing creatively. The young generation has the great responsibility of reviving Islamic traditions such as promoting humanitarian virtue, and this is very important. Also the managing director of Hamshahri, added that "the majority of our population are young and it is our responsibility to try to fulfill their needs.

I had a dream which influenced me to write the book when I was only 19 years old. My great aspiration was to have the ability to impress young readers, and I think this desire has been achieved after several years of hard work. The greatest number of published books are about literature, and the countdown continues with linguistics, religion, social sciences, applied sciences, history and geography, natural sciences and mathematics, general subjects, philosophy, and art.

The greatest number of translated published books four titles were about geography and history. Mansoor Kadivar, September Economic needs and the role of rural women and girls in supplying a part and sometimes all of the revenue of the family have exacerbated this deprivation. This led 70 years ago to a situation in which the first steps were taken to embark upon an official education system in Iran and hence achieve the literacy of rural men and those in the urban society. In , only one person was literate in a community of , rural women while one person was literate out of every 14 rural men.

The policies of the former regime of Iran before the Islamic Revolution were directed to prioritize the development and provision of educational services to urban societies. This led to a neglect of rural society and there is still a long way to go in order to eliminate illiteracy amongst Iranian rural women.

In the short period after the victory of the revolution, the proportion of rural girls who were students and the literacy rate of rural women reached a level unprecedented in the past fifty years. Looking at literacy among rural women in various age groups, one realizes that illiteracy increases with age. One may conclude that the illiteracy of rural women is caused by lack of access to education. The rural society's culture and the indifference toward education for girls in the rural areas, are among other factors.

The considerable participation of rural women and girls indicates their interest in becoming literate and enjoying a greater level of education although they have had no access or little access to education facilities in previous years. Around domestic publishers, among them children's publishers and 45 publishers who were active in the learning-aid section, as well as nearly foreign publishers from over 20 countries, took part. There were 85 publishers who took part in the Tehran Book Fair for the first time; Publishers from Italy was among them.

Also 45 publishers from Germany participated for the second time in over ten years; Goethe Institute and the Head of Frankfurt Book Fair were represented at the fair as well. Egypt had an active participation, with over 20 publishers displaying their latest titles. A special ceremony was held on 16 May in order to introduce and honour the cultural relations between Iran and Italy.

In this event there was a round-table on cultural affairs between the two countries. Governmental Publishers: "Madreseh Publications" was commended for publishing a large number of books and paying attention to the technical quality of the published books. Private Publishers: The Jury members awarded "Peydayesh Publications" for its attention to the technical quality of its published books and their illustrations.

They also chose "Shabaviz" and "Ghadyani" because of the number of their published books, their efforts to expand the publication field in the country and also for paying attention to the technical standards and the illustrations for children's books. Governmental Publishers: In a close competition, the Jury members encouraged and awarded the "Publications of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs" and the "Publications of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance" for the large number of their publications, attention to the technical quality of the books and also trying to expand the culture of book-reading in society.

Private Publishers:"Markaz Publisher" was awarded for the number of books it has published for the first time this year and following the standards, and "Daleel Publisher", for the number of the books it has published about Imam Ali PBUH. In the Hall of Young Authors, the works of young writers under 20 years old were presented; there were workshops and round-tables in the fields of stories, poems and illustrations.

A competition named "Writings" was arranged in this hall in which the best written works by young people were presented and awarded. There was also a the possibility of purchasing books by Internet in "Miras-e-Maktoub" Publishing House, which is especially active in ancient Persian texts and has exhibited over titles related to this field and religion. This publisher also introduces its e-books and e-magazines on the web. Mansoor Kadivar, June The round table was attended by a large number of press experts and the Deputy Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance for Press and Publicity Affairs.

In his inaugural remarks, he said such events should address issues like a comprehensive information system, legal rights in information systems and the effect of information systems on culture in order to find ways of improving a sound information flow. Referring to the impact of information at the national and international level and especially on culture, he remarked that we live in the communications age, and indicated the significance of communications and information in the contemporary world. He noted that information and statistics sources in the cultural field suffer from a certain deficiency which originates from a confusion in definition of current terms.

There is no consensus on the statistical data and information in the cultural field, he added: there are problems with regard to access to information for researchers while information centers fail to share their resources. He also pointed out that extensive technological developments are bound to bring changes to educational employment and other patterns of life.

Referring to the increasing spread of the Internet, he noted that we should have a share of the production of Internet contents. It should be mentioned that the 1st Electronic Cultural Network was launched on this occasion. This network consists of data on books written for children and young adults in Iran. Mansoor Kadivar, January A number of writers in the field of stories, poetry, research and criticism were selected and awarded prizes as winners of this festival.

Mansoor Kadivar, October Translated by a Christian priest, the Korean version of Rumi's poems will soon appear in bookshops. The book is the third Persian literary work translated into the Korean language over the past six months. July President Khatami made the remark in his address to the participants at the symposium.

This great ingenious narrator of art and life presented a warm, lively and truthful drama of the world and its wonders; a world which is neither abstract nor far-fetched but real and tangible Saadi stands out from the rest of great Persian poets and writers as an unrivalled literary figure in the creation of masterpieces in prose and poetry. It is a mark of his greatness that his literary fame goes beyond the confines of time and space.

On the sidelines of the gathering, there was an exhibition of books compiled by foreign thinkers and writers on the various aspects of Saadi's life. Some volumes of works of scholars from Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, etc. He was considered the most important contemporary Iranian poet.

He also published cultural and literary periodicals. In his last unfinished book entitled "Book of the Alley" he coined several Persian slang expressions now widely used by the public. In the last years of his life he finished a translation of the novel "Tranquil Flows the Don" by Mikhail Sholokhov which is to be published in the near future. He was regarded by critics not only as Iran's greatest modern poet, but as a poet of world standing, who contributed greatly to the reformation of Persian poetry which started at the beginning of the 20th century.

He was particularly highly respected by secular intellectuals. He was the editor of the literary journal "Karnameh". His novels are often characterized by complex structures, and the discovery of the key to the central enigma of his stories requires careful reading. He began his literary career with a collection of short stories entitled "As Always", but he was mostly known as the writer of "Prince Ehtejab", a novel set in the Qajar period that was turned into a prize-winning motion picture by Bahman Farmanara. His last major book was a collection of literary essays and reviews entitled "Garden in Garden".

He was awarded the German Erich Maria Remarque Award last year for his "constant efforts to fight oppression and to promote democracy and human rights values. At the 7th International Awards Ceremonies on 10 February , all the books that were originally published in the course of in two categories of "Islamic Studies" and "Iranian Studies" were reviewed. As in previous periods, the review of the works was conducted through studying the printed indexes, specialised magazines and publications, discussions in research centres, data-banks, reputable publishers and consultation with Islamic scholars and theoreticians.

One of the main points in this year's fair was that for the first time in over ten years, Germany participated with book titles from 40 German publishers. Top publishers from the previous year were introduced and awarded by President Khatami at the fair. The site is prepared and organized in three languages, Persian, Arabic and English. Gazelle International was another publisher who had provided the first online bookstore in the Middle East.

This publishing house is affiliated with quite a number of publishers in Europe and US. However, there were no major hit items in , and sales of both books and magazines marked a decrease. The downward trend in publishing sales continues. A big factor is the problem of returned books. Under consignment sales system, bookstores are free to return unsold books and magazines to their distributors within a specified period of time.

This problem has been an issue in the industry for some time. There has been progress in efforts to tackle the problem with digitization of distribution system, but we are still in a transition period. One reason cited for the problem of returns is the increase in returns caused by bookstores that have closed or switched businesses. For the past several years, approximately 1, stores per year are said to have left the industry.

Many chain bookstores have opened, but floor space on average is decreasing. To solve this problem, either reducing the number of new publications, or building a better system to increase is efficiency. The former is an issue for the publisher. However, it is difficult to change the current situation because publishers want to serve its mission and role by producing new creative works. The latter solution deals with the current distribution system. The relationship between the readers and the various players, the creator publisher , distributor wholesalers , seller bookstore , should be such that readers should be able to obtain books they want surely and rapidly.

This means that publishing people should nurture readers and meet their needs, however, those needs are varied. The number of new publications is not as large compared with those of other developed countries, but there are many similar books on the market. Publishers ought to assess their plans for new publications critically. The fact that there are many new publications does show the richness of society. There is free competition; those publications which are positively evaluated by the readers will remain. Because of the rapid growth of internet bookstores, there is the possibility that multiple channels of distribution change consumer behaviour.

At the same time, different distribution routes according to the type of publication would be considered. The freedom to publish is freedom of distribution and freedom to advertise. Some have a long history; the Mainichi poll has been conducted 59 times, the Ie-no-Hikari survey 60 times. Among these surveys, the farming community survey is a unique one.

The target population is randomly selected from family members of the Agricultural Cooperatives nationwide. There are more people read magazines than books. The percentage of people reading is generally on the decline. The percentage for magazines was the lowest in 55 years; that for books was the second lowest in 33 years.

Minister Mahathir Mohammad. As part of that network. Full Text Available This research sheds light on the development and effects of coinage manufacturing in Egypt during the period of Mohammed Ali and the impact on its manufacturing, which was firstly done by primitive hand tools producing low quality coinage whether in its general shape or in its inscription. The coinage manufacturing was developed to be made by machines producing good quality of coinage with clear inscription made in the middle of such coinage. This research has clarified the concept of the development of coinage manufacturing and its impact on its shape made by Mohammad Ali and the reasons motivated him to such development.

The research also focused on conservations made by Mohammad Ali in The Ottoman Darbkhanah and his establishing to a new Darbkhanah in the year AH, for the purpose of improving the coinage manufacturing in Egypt to cope with the development of Coinage manufacturing in Europe at that time. In order to clarify this, this research has followed the comparative and analytical method by presenting the impact of the development in the coinage manufacturing before and after Mohammad Ali Era showing the clear difference in the shape and the inscription.

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine possible foot deformities students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education. The research was conducted at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Niksic, on a sample of respondents.

The sample of variables consisted of a total of two foot deformities: flat feet pes planus and carved feet pes cavus divided into three levels according to the severity of the deformity, from the lightest to the heaviest, including foot without deformity. For determining the status of the foot, was applied orthopaedy on the basis of which is considered plantar side of the foot.

The results are presented in tables in the percentage and numerical representation of the assessment deformities flat and hollowed foot. According to the results it is evident that out of respondents, 53 students Numerical and percentage estimates flatfoot deformity is: 16 students The highest percentage shows deformity "hollowed foot" of the first degree Some studies have shown that people with recessed feet in some sports disciplines, achieve the same results as people with normal feet Jovovic, Accordingly, foot deformity may occur not only in the period of growth and development, but also in later years Zivkovic, Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries.

There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace.

Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included. Keywords: obesity, physical activity, strategy, Arab countries. Resistant gram-negative bacilli and antibiotic consumption in zarqa, jordan. To investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacteria in relation to antibiotic use in Prince Hashem Hospital PHH , Jordan. One hundred consecutive gram-negative bacterial isolates from different sites were collected from patients admitted to the ICU at PHH.

The susceptibilities of the strains to 12 antibiotics were performed and interpreted. The quantities and the numbers of the patients discharged on antibiotics and the quantities consumed were obtained from the hospital pharmacy records. The most common isolate was P. The most frequently used antibiotics were the third-generation cephalosporins ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, followed by imipenem and amikacin.

Antibiotic resistance surveillance programs associated with registration of antibiotic consumption are necessary to promote optimal use of antibiotics. Rational prescribing of antibiotics should be encouraged through educational programs, surveillance and audit. Proper infection control measures should be practiced to prevent horizontal transfer of drug-resistant organisms. Antibiotic resistance in children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection is certainly one of the most common childhood infections.

A retrospective study carried out at Prince Hashem hospital, Zarqa city, eastern Jordan and involved episodes of culture proved urinary tract infection obtained from patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics during the period from April 1, to December 31, The isolated microorganisms and there antibiotics susceptibility were studied. Seventy three patients Proteus, Pseudomonas and Candida spp.

Pediatric urine culture isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin and Nalidixic acid can be considered as the first line antibiotics for prophylaxis and or treatment of patients with recurrent UTI, while Meropenam and Ciprofloxacin can be used empirically in treating patients with complicated UTI. In his youth, he learned canonical law and theology from his father but was soon attracted to mysticism Heravi, , After performing Hajj in between the years AH and getting permission to guide people from Naqshbandiyeh and Qaderiyeh mystic Sheikh Mohammad Saman Madani, he returned home and guided people untill the end of his life Ansari, 3.

He was also familiar with the works of poets such as 'Attar, Rumi, Hafez, Ibn Arabi and other great names of mysticism. He was attached to Rumi and Hafez and has quoted them frequently in his works. He composed some poems in Arabic as well. At least from AH Sheikh Sa'd od-Din started to bring changes to the ancient Persian poetry; thus his deconstruction made poetical form much similar to contemporary Persian poetry.

However, due to political and cultural distance between Iran and Afghanistan, we did not have a chance to get familiar with his innovations. His innovations consist of the following It consists of fifteen stanzas: The first stanza with eight lines, the second stanza fifty four lines, the twelfth stanza eleven lines and the other stanzas having equal lines. The line between. Two decades after Iran's Islamic revolution, science in this politically isolated but oil-rich nation may be on the verge of resurgence.

But Iran's government is walking a tightrope between hard-liners on the right who oppose reforms and liberal university students eager for change. The impact of moderate wine consumption on the risk of developing prostate cancer. The financial crisis in Malaysia: causes, response, and results — A Rejoinder.

My basic difference with the reviewers is this: they maintain that weaknesses of the sort piling up in the economy over the years invited currency attack, while I have reasons to believe that it came to Malaysia independently of her fundamental, rather eroded them The cartoon controversy as a case of multiculturalrecognition. The paper provides a general theoretical account of recognition as a strictly political concept, including distinctions between different conceptions hereof, and asks whether the cartoon controversy can be described in these terms and what the relevant meaning of recognition might then be In these cases, the casualties are divided equally among the number of bombs, and it is noted by a caret symbol Liberty and Disneyland ,15 and some of the hijackers, such as Mohammad Atta, enrolled in flight schools in preparation for the attack.

The tapes were allegedly shot by Ghasoub Abrash Ghalyoun in See Walter Pincus Computing handbook information systems and information technology. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. Stability required! Current research is focused on ways to improve stability of perovskite-based devices, a key characteristic required to bring this technology from the lab into the market.

In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin describes the context of this Special Issue, and summarizes the work being performed in his research group toward this low-cost near-future photovoltaic technology. KGaA, Weinheim. Ultrasonography of the uterus after normal vaginal delivery. To define the appearence of the uterus and the uterine cavity, as revealed by the ultrasound in normal women following a vaginal delivery. Fifty four women were scanned on postpartum days 1, 7, 14, 28 and Ultrasound operation was performed transabdominally for all women.

The involution process of the uterus was assessed by measuring the anteroposterior diameter and uterine cavity. The appearence of the uterine cavity content was documented. Factors related to the involution process: parity, breast-feeding, smoking and infant's birth weight were also evaluated. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the uterus diminished substantially and progressively from 93mm on day one postpartum to The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the uterine cavity diminished from The position of the uterus, its shape and the appearence of its cavity during the normal puerperium was observed.

The uterus was most often retroverted and empty in the early puerperium. Fluid and debris in the whole cavity were seen in mid puerperium, the cavity was empty and appeared as a thin white line. No correlation was found between the involution of the uterus and parity, breast-feeding and infant's birth weight. Transabdominal sonography is suitable for examination of the uterus during the early puerperium period. The uterine body and position, as well as the cavity, are easy to examine by ultrasound. Accumulation of fluid and debris in the uterine cavity is a common and insignificant finding of the invluting uterus.

Based on Agro-physiological Traits. Full Text Available In order to study of genetic variation and identification of yield components in chickpea, a trial consists of 96 accessions of chickpea received from Iranian gen bank Seed and Plant Improvement Institute along with five checks Arman, Bivanij, Jam, Hashem and ILC was conducted based on an augmented design in cropping season at research farm of agricultural college, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

For evaluating of accessionst the morphological, physiological and phonological traits during plant growth were measured. The result of ANOVA and mean comparisons showed significant differences among accessions for some of the traits i. Chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin-bearing microcells against hepatocellular carcinoma in model animals.

It possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits chemically-induced carcinogenesis in the skin, forestomach, colon, and liver. Unfortunately, the poor bioavailability and hydrophobicity of curcumin pose a major hurdle to its use as a potent anticancer agent. To circumvent some of these problems, we developed a novel, dual-core microcell formulation of curcumin. The encapsulation of curcumin in microcells increases its solubility and bioavailability, and facilitates slow release kinetics over extended periods. Besides being safe, these formulations do not bear any toxicity constraints, as revealed by in vitro and in vivo studies.

Histopathological analysis revealed that curcumin-bearing microcells helped in regression of hepatocellular carcinoma and the maintenance of cellular architecture in liver tissue. Free curcumin had a very mild effect on cancer suppression. Empty sham microcells and microparticles failed to inhibit cancer cells. The novel curcumin formulation was found to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma efficiently in Swiss albino mice. Keywords: diferuloylmethane, carcinogenesis, microparticle, nanocells, cancer, Curcuma longa.

However, the revolution that occurred in Egypt in , followed by the election of Mohammed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood as the first civilian president of Egypt, it did not change the foreign policy of Egypt, particularly against the United States. In that sense, Egypt is still continuing good relations with the United States as in the reign of Hosni Mubarak. In this study, the authors use the neoclassical realism theory which states that the foreign policy adopted by a country is the result of domestic political dynamics that are influenced by international structures.

Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar.

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Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives.

Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A. H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading. Full Text Available Mohammad Moin has been considered as one of the most committed literary men of the present time who recorded a considerable amount of Persian words, expressions, and declarations in his own 6 volumes Persian dictionary according to scientific research methods and in a different way in comparison to the previous dictionaries.

This article argues the quality of colloquial infinitives which have been recorded in Moin Persian Dictionary. The most important obstacles in all researches related to literature and colloquial language is the recognition criterion of "being colloquial". In this article, the recognition criterion is that of Moin's criterion who was a great master in this field. Finally, the examples of each category have been presented through tables. During his PhD studies, Mohammad Shofiqul Islam studied the feasibility of developing novel hybrid breeding schemes based on cytoplasmic male sterility CMS systems in perennial ryegrass.

He successfully completed the assembly and annotation of a male His findings constitute a good basis for continuing research to produce hybrid grass varieties to address the future needs This does not fully exploit the potential of heterosis, however. Hybrid breeding is an alternative strategy and provides opportunities to fully exploit the genetically available heterosis in perennial Complete blood cell count components and coronary slow-flow phenomenon.

Microvascular and endothelial dysfunctions, inflammation, diffuse atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregability have been reported to be the main possible etiologies for CSFP. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination. Methods: A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil 5-FU injections on demand.

This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block.

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Results: There was significant reduction of mean IOP from What Perspectives for Crisis Resolution? Against the Bomb and for Human Rights. The will of Islamic power to access the nuclear bomb is evident. The main concern is the nuclear project's state of advancement. Currently, the reformer Khatami or the pragmatic Rafsanjani are no longer rivals to Ahmadinejad.

They have been replaced by the current mayor of Teheran, Mohammad Qalibaf, and the former Iranian chief nuclear negotiator, Ali Larijani, both products, like Ahmadinejad, of the repressive and safe apparatus of the Islamic regime. Coupled with targeted and necessary sanctions, the international support of secular and democratic Iranians is the more legitimate and rational way to weaken the hard-line Iranian rulers, and to give support to the pragmatists and the reformists currently stifled by the theocratic institutions.

Bioindicator Thais carinifera mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from to Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from to at three 3 sites out of six 6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera.

Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade. There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors.

In short time, many famous fiqh scholars were educated from this region, they undertook this duty and continued this education until today. The fiqh education that started in mosques in the begining, continued also in madrasas after some time. This article provides informations and evaluations about the mentioned issues. It entails a transformation process involving all sectors of the society in such a way that true and committed Muslim leaders will emerge to provide direction and at the same time orchestrate the development of the communities.

It is therefore argued that transformational leadership is the most appropriate model that could improve the living conditions of Muslims in the Philippines Firstly, this study provides the empirical evidence that leaders and followers believe that it is through Islamic leadership that their communities can be developed. Secondly, the history of the leadership of Prophet Mohammad and his four caliphs proved that Islamic leadership is indeed transformational leadership one, hence, they deserve to be emulated by Muslims.

Regional evaluation and primary geological structural and metallogenical research of great Kavir basin as view of possibility formation of sedimentary-surficial Uranium mineralization. Great Kavir basin is the largest inner basin in Iran that extended about km 2. This basin is situated in the centre of lran , to the south from Alborz mountain range and elongated in the sub- latitudinal trend and its construction is asymmetric.

The basin cover consists generally of complicated sequence of continental - marine Oligocene - Miocene molasses. According to drainage systems - conditions, molassoid cycles, alluvial, alluvial - deltaic and lacustrine sediments, climate, morphological conditions and metallogenic and structural features, Great Kavir depression generally is favorable for exigence and surficial uranium deposits vally - fill, flood plain, deltaic and playa. Uranium occurrences that are Known in the southern and north eastern part of the margent Great Kavir basin, are Arosan, Irekan and Mohammad Abad.

Similar geological - structural conditions for uranium mineralization is possible in the margent of Great Kavir basin. The role of EGFR-targeting strategies in the treatment of head and neck cancer.

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The use of cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy as definitive treatment for locoregionally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is generally restricted to patients unfit to receive cisplatin-based chemoradiation, which is still considered the standard of care. The effect of this epidermal growth factor receptor antagonist occurs without any change in the pattern and the severity of toxicity usually associated with head and neck radiation. Wake up to insomnia: future approaches to the management of insomnia.

Chronic insomnia is the most common sleep disorder, affecting nearly 40 million Americans and accounting for nearly one-third of adults. Peer-assisted learning: a medical student perspective. The original paper was informative, and as penultimate year medical students at Imperial College, we want to share our unique perspective regarding student learning and the benefits of peer-assisted learning PAL.

We find that many subjects, including embryology as outlined in the paper,1 are complex and typically taught through lecture-based formats. While this may be understandable to readers of respective specialties, students may find certain concepts abstract and not easily grasped through lectures alone. View the original paper by Kazzazi and Bartlett.

Shahnameh of Ferdowsi (In Our Time)

In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1 Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2 anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3 anxiety scores differ between sexes.

Methods: A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Results: Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients.

In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR. Keywords: idiopathic central. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment.

Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. Keywords: age-related hearing impairment ARHI, presbycusis, biomarker, treatment. Full Text Available Indus deltaic plain consists of medium to fine grained sediments, rich in organic matter deposited during the Holocene period.

Thar desert is covered with sand dunes and loess originated from transported sediments from Rann of Kutch or the Indus plain by monsoon winds or by the reworking of local alluvial deposits. Groundwater salinity and microbial pollution are common in both types of lanforms, but arsenic AS and fluoride F toxicity dominate in the groundwater of Indus delta and Thar desert, respectively. Arsenic concentration in Tando Mohammad Khan and Tando Allayar varies from ppb and exhibits near neutral slightly alkaline pH ranging from 6. Arsenic distribution is patchy and seems to be related to the prsence of small scale redox zonation in the aquifer.

High arsenic affected areas are densely populated and intensively cultivated and its hot spots are those from where the Indus river passed during the Holocene period including Tando Allayar and Tando Mohammad Khan. Extensive ground water irrigation has accelerated flow of groundwater that brought dissolved degraded organic matter in contact with arsenic bearing sediments, enhancing reduction processes and triggering release of arsenic from detrital bioitite and muscovite in the groundwater.

Furthermore, unlined sanitation and microbial contamination contribute to degradation of organic matter that enhances the reduction of iron oxy-hydroxide leading to release of arsenic to groundwater. Fluoride is found in all the groundwater samples of Tharparkar district, in the range of 0. The pH of groundwater is alkaline 7. The favourable pH of groundwater and soil composition of Holocene sediments of Indus delta and slightly older alluvium of Thar desert, respectively are responsible for mobilization of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of Sindh province of Pakistan.

The effects of religion and spirituality on postoperative pain, hemodynamic functioning and anxiety after cesarean section. Full Text Available Spiritual elements play an important role in the recovery process from acute postoperative pain. This study was conducted to assess the effect of pray meditation on postoperative pain reduction and physiologic responds among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was conducted among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia during at tertiary regional and teaching hospital in Lorestan, Iran.

For about 20 minutes using a disposable phone mentioned and listened to pray meditation "Ya man esmoho davaa va zekroho shafa, Allahomma salle ala mohammad va ale mohammad " in interventional group and phone off in control group. Before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes, 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation pain intensity, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were measured.

Statistically significant improvement in pain score was found at 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation than control group 1. However, there was no significant difference in the physiological responses systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate any time between the groups. Religion and spirituality intervention such as pray meditation could be used as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques for reducing pain after cesarean surgery. Attar Nishabori, Farid od-Din Mohammad Reza Shafie Kadkani emend.

Tehran: Sokan. Chalisova, Natalia Encyclopedia of Iranica.

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Last Updated: December Farshidvard, Khosrow Conjugating of simile with another factors in Hafez poetry. Gowhar, No 18, Ferdowsi, Abolghasem Shahname Moscow Press. Saeed Hamidiyan emend. Tehran: Ghatreh. Forster, Edward Morgan Aspects of the Novel. Techniques of usages of fantastic etiology in Anvari' Ghasayed. Kavoshname, 9th year, No 16, Hafez, Khajeh Shams od-Din Hafez Divan. Parviz Natel Khanlari emend.. Tehran: Kharazmi. Heravi, Hoseinali Commentary of Hafez' Gazals. Tehran: Simorgh. Homaei, Jalalodin Techniques of Rhetoric and Literary devices. Tehran: Homa. Hoseini Nishabori, Ataola ibn Mahmoud Badaye alsanaye.

Jacobson, Roman Resurrect of Words. Khabazha, Reza The Function of fantastic etiology in the structure of themes digression to eulogy. Monthly Book of Literature. No 73, Mohamadi Asiyabadi, Ali Projection and characterization in Hafez poetry. Motahari, Morteza Lessons of Shafa Theology. Tehran: Hekmat. Radowyani, Mohammad ibn Omar Tarjoman e Balaghat. Ahmad Atash emend. Shamisa, Sirus A New Glance on Rhetoric. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein Ada ol-Badaye. Hosein Jafari emend. Spring Clusters in Rhetoric. Spiritual elements play an important role in the recovery process from acute postoperative pain.

Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of novel polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles for controlled delivery of doxorubicin. Properties of these nanoparticles, such as size, drug-loading efficiency, and drug release kinetics, were evaluated in vitro for targeted and controlled drug delivery. In addition, the particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that the PNIPAAm-MAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible, indicating their potential for biomedical application. Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, drug loading, doxorubicin release, biocompatibility.

Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated.

Further, sex differences were explored. Method: During an exam week, a total of university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.

Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics.

Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed.

Keywords: nanoparticles, lung cancer, inhalational chemotherapy, drug targeting, nanotoxicity. Approximately 1. Cyclopia typically presents with a median single eye or a partially divided eye in a single orbit, absent nose, and a proboscis above the eye. Extracranial malformations described in stillbirths with cyclopia include polydactyl, renal dysplasia, and an omphalocele.

The etiology of this rare syndrome, which is incompatible with life, is still largely unknown. Most cases are sporadic. Heterogeneous risk factors have been implicated as possible causes. This newborn was the first baby to a non-consanguineous family, and a healthy year-old mother, with no history of drug ingestion or febrile illnesses during pregnancy.

Antenatal history revealed severe hydrocephalus diagnosed early by intrauterine ultrasound but the pregnancy was not terminated because of the lack of medical legitimization in the country. On examination, the newborn was found to have a dysmorphic face, with a median single eye, absence of nose, micrognathia, and a proboscis above the eye, all of which made cyclopia the possible initial diagnosis. Multiple unusual abdominal defects were present that include a huge omphalocele containing whole liver and spleen, urinary bladder extrophy, and undefined abnormal external genitalia, which called for urgent confirmation.

Translation of «firdausi» into 25 languages

Brain MRI was done and revealed findings consistent with alobar holoprosencephaly cyclopia. Antiviral therapy: a perspective.

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This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health.

Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column EVAC is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection.

It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education.

The liberalization of U. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of.

Introduction pages. Trabia, United States Mohammad S. Contributions of high technical merit within the span of engineering disciplines; covering the main areas of engineering: Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation and Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental and Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal.

Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are also welcomed. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test—retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders MDD. Thereafter, patients were assessed 3—14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other patients were assessed 3—14 days later via a telephone interview.

Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria.

Methods and results: Nanosized particles of three metal oxides ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 were synthesized by a sol—gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria.

Conclusion: Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. Perception of academic stress among Health Science Preparatory Program students in two Saudi universities. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty.

It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. Both universities adopt the HSPP system.

Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama
Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama
Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama
Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama
Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama Shahnama Studies II: The Reception of Firdausis Shahnama

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