Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977

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Another brother, Murtaza, died in while his sister was in power in a gun battle with police in Karachi.

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The couple had three children: son Bilawal and two daughters, Bakhtawar and Aseefa. And Bhutto was elected prime minister barely three months after giving birth to her first child. She became the first ever female prime minister of a Muslim nation on December 1, Bhutto was defeated in the election, and found herself in court defending herself against several charges of misconduct while in office.

Bhutto continued to be a prominent focus of opposition discontent, and won a further election in , but was replaced in While in self-imposed exile in Britain and Dubai, she was convicted in of corruption and sentenced to three years in prison. She continued to direct her party from abroad, being re-affirmed as PPP leader in Bhutto returned to Pakistan on October 18, , after President Musharraf granted her amnesty on all corruption charges, opening the way for her return and a possible power-sharing agreement.

She only survived after ducking down at the moment of impact behind her armored vehicle. She was placed under house arrest Nov. Bhutto called for his resignation four days later. Emergency rule was lifted Dec. Bhutto was killed when an assassin fired shots and then blew himself up after an election campaign rally in Rawalpindi on December 27, The attack also killed 28 others and wounded at least another The attacker struck just minutes after Bhutto addressed a rally of thousands of supporters in the garrison city of Rawalpindi, 8 miles south of Islamabad.

Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf announced three days of mourning. The shooting and bombing attack on the charismatic former prime minister plunged Pakistan into turmoil. Pakistan is armed with nuclear weapons and is a key U. Furious supporters rampaged through several cities, torching cars, trains and stores in violence that left at least 23 dead.

Bhutto reportedly had been planning to give two visiting American lawmakers a page report accusing the Musharraf government of taking steps to rig the Jan. Mehsud has denied involvement. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.

Clara Barton is one of the most-recognized heroes of the American Civil War. She began her illustrious career as an educator but found her true calling tending wounded soldiers on and off bloody Civil War battlefields. When the war ended, Barton worked to identify missing and He later left her, however, in order to remarry. In , Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California. During this time, Bhutto's father, Sir Shahnawaz, played a controversial role in the affairs of the state of Junagadh now in Gujarat. Coming to power in a palace coup as the dewan, he secured the accession of the state to Pakistan, which was ultimately negated by Indian intervention in December Here he would become interested in the theories of socialism , delivering a series of lectures on the feasibility of socialism in Islamic countries.

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Upon finishing his studies, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in Their first child, his daughter Benazir , was born in She was followed by Murtaza in , a second daughter, Sanam, in , and the youngest child, Shahnawaz Bhutto, in He accepted the post of lecturer at the Sindh Muslim College, from where he was also awarded an honorary law degree by the then college President, Mr.

Hassanally A. Rahman before establishing himself in a legal practice in Karachi. He also took over the management of his family's estate and business interests after his father's death. In the same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistani cabinet minister when he was given charge of the energy ministry by President Muhammad Ayub Khan , who had seized power and declared martial law. He was subsequently promoted to head the ministries of commerce, information, and industries. Bhutto became a close and trusted adviser to Ayub, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience in politics.

In , Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement with the Soviet Union , which also agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan. In , he was appointed Pakistan's foreign minister. His swift rise to power also brought him national prominence and popularity. As foreign minister, Bhutto significantly transformed Pakistan's hitherto pro-Western foreign policy. While maintaining a prominent role for Pakistan within the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and the Central Treaty Organization, Bhutto began asserting a foreign policy course for Pakistan that was independent of U.

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Bhutto criticized the U. Bhutto worked to establish stronger relations with the People's Republic of China. Bhutto also signed the Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement on March 2, , that transferred square kilometers of territory from Pakistan-administered Kashmir to Chinese control. Bhutto asserted his belief in non-alignment, making Pakistan an influential member in non-aligned organizations.

Believing in pan-Islamic unity, Bhutto developed closer relations with nations such as Indonesia , Saudi Arabia , and other Arab states. Bhutto advocated hardline and confrontational policies against India over the Kashmir conflict and other issues. A brief skirmish took place in August , between Indian and Pakistani forces near the international boundary in the Rann of Kutch which was resolved by the UN.

Pakistan hoped to support an uprising by Kashmiris against India. Ayub and Shastri agreed to exchange prisoners of war and withdraw respective forces to pre-war boundaries. This agreement was deeply unpopular in Pakistan, causing major political unrest against Ayub's regime. Bhutto's criticism of the final agreement caused a major rift between him and Ayub Khan. Initially denying the rumors, Bhutto resigned in June and expressed strong opposition to Ayub's regime. Following his resignation, large crowds gathered to listen to Bhutto's speech upon his arrival in Lahore on June 21, Tapping a wave of anger and opposition against Ayub, Bhutto began traveling across the country to deliver political speeches.

In a speech in October , Bhutto proclaimed " Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy.

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All power to the people. Bhutto's party became a part of the pro-democracy movement involving diverse political parties from all across Pakistan. PPP activists staged large protests and strikes in different parts of the country, increasing pressure on Ayub to resign. Bhutto's arrest on November 12, , sparked greater political unrest. After his release, Bhutto attended the Round Table Conference called by Ayub in Rawalpindi, but refused to accept Ayub's continuation in office and the East Pakistani politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 's Six point movement for regional autonomy.

Following Ayub's resignation, the new president Gen. Yahya Khan promised to hold parliamentary elections on December 7, Bhutto's party won a large number of seats from constituencies in West Pakistan.

#PAkStudies#Bhutto#reforms Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Government Reforms - Urdu

Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and famously promised to "break the legs" of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the inaugural session of the National Assembly of Pakistan. He refused to accept Yahya's scheme to appoint Bengali politician Nurul Amin as prime minister, with Bhutto as deputy prime minister.

Indian intervention in East Pakistan led to the defeat of Pakistani forces, who surrendered on December 16, Bhutto and others condemned Yahya for failing to protect Pakistan's unity. Isolated, Yahya resigned on December 20 and transferred power to Bhutto, who became the president, army commander-in-chief as well as the first civilian chief martial law administrator. As president, Bhutto addressed the nation via radio and television, saying "My dear countrymen, my dear friends, my dear students, laborers, peasants… those who fought for Pakistan… We are facing the worst crisis in our country's life, a deadly crisis.

Pakistan Under Bhutto: - Shahid Javed Burki - Google книги

We have to pick up the pieces, very small pieces, but we will make a new Pakistan, a prosperous and progressive Pakistan. To implement this, Bhutto reversed the verdict of Mujib's court trial that had taken place earlier, in which the presiding Brigadier Rahimuddin Khan later General had sentenced Mujib to death. Appointing a new cabinet, Bhutto appointed Gen.

Gul Hasan as Chief of Army Staff. On January 2, , Bhutto announced the nationalization of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electrical, petrochemicals, cement , and public utilities. More than 2, civil servants were dismissed on charges of corruption. He appointed Gen. Tikka Khan as the new Chief of the Army Staff in March , as he felt the General would not interfere in political matters and would concentrate on rehabilitating the Pakistan Army.

Bhutto convened the National Assembly on April 14, rescinded martial law on April 21, and charged the legislators with writing a new constitution. Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and negotiated a formal peace agreement and the release of 93, Pakistani prisoners of war. The two leaders signed the Shimla Agreement, which committed both nations to establish a Line of Control in Kashmir and obligated them to resolve disputes peacefully through bilateral talks.

Although he secured the release of Pakistani soldiers held by India, Bhutto was criticized by many in Pakistan for allegedly making too many concessions to India. It is theorized that Bhutto feared his downfall if he could not secure the release of Pakistani soldiers, the return of territory occupied by Indian forces. In January , Bhutto ordered the army to suppress a rising insurgency in the province of Balochistan and dismissed the governments in Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province.

The National Assembly approved the new constitution, which Bhutto signed into effect on April The constitution proclaimed an "Islamic Republic" in Pakistan with a parliamentary form of government.

Benazir Bhutto: 1953-2007

On August 10, Bhutto turned over the post of president to Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, assuming the office of prime minister instead. Bhutto officially recognized Bangladesh in July. Making an official visit to Bangladesh, Bhutto was criticized in Pakistan for laying flowers at a memorial for Bangladeshi "freedom fighters. However, Bhutto faced considerable pressure from Islamic religious leaders to declare the Ahmadiya communities as non-Muslims.

Failing to restrain sectarian violence and rioting, Bhutto and the National Assembly amended the constitution to that effect. Bhutto intensified his nationalization program, extending government control over agricultural processing and consumer industries. Bhutto also, with advice from Admiral S. Ahsan, inaugurated Port Qasim, designed to expand harbor facilities near Karachi.

However, the performance of the Pakistani economy declined amidst increasing bureaucracy and a decline in private sector confidence. Tikka Khan, surpassing five generals senior to Zia. He erred in judging a man not on his merit by dint of effort but merit by birth. As we see later he suffered for the undue support he showed to his Biratheri Clan.

Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's nuclear program. Its militarization was initiated in January , and, in its initial years, was implemented by General Tikka Khan. The Kahuta facility was also established by the Bhutto Administration. In his book, If I am Assassinated , written from his prison cell, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto revealed how Henry Kissinger had said to him in "We can destabilize your government and make a horrible example out of you".

Kissinger had warned Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that if Pakistan continued with its nuclear program the Prime Minister would have to pay a heavy price, a statement that is interpreted to indicate an American hand in Mr. Bhutto's trial and execution. Bhutto began facing considerable criticism and increasing unpopularity as his term progressed. Despite the ideological similarity of the two parties the clash of egos both inside and outside the National Assembly became increasingly fierce and started with the Federal government's decision to oust the NAP provincial government in Balochistan for alleged secessionist activities [11] and culminating in the banning of the party and arrest of much of its leadership after the death of Hayat Khan Sherpao, a close lieutenant of Bhutto, in a bomb blast in the frontier town of Peshawar.

Dissidence also increased within the PPP and the murder of dissident leader Ahmed Raza Kasuri's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime. The political crisis in the NWFP and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties remained suspended and an estimated , troops deployed there were accused of human rights abuses and killing large numbers of civilians. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, accusing their opponents of rigging the election.

Provincial elections were held amidst low voter turnout and an opposition boycott, violent PNA declared the newly-elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Muslim leaders such as Maulana Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime. Intensifying political and civil disorder prompted Bhutto to hold talks with PNA leaders, which culminated in an agreement for the dissolution of the assemblies and fresh elections under a form of government of national unity.

General Zia announced that martial law had been imposed, the constitution suspended, and all assemblies dissolved. Bhutto was released on July 29, and was received by a large crowd of supporters in his hometown of Larkana. He immediately began touring across Pakistan, delivering speeches to large crowds and planning his political comeback.

Bhutto was arrested again on September 3, before being released on bail on September Bhutto was imprisoned on September 17, and a large number of PPP leaders and activists arrested and disqualified from contesting in elections. Bhutto's trial began on October 24, on charges of "conspiracy to murder" Ahmed Raza Kasuri. Zia relieved prime minister Bhutto of power, holding him in detention for a month.

Zia pledged that new elections would be held in 90 days.

Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977 Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977
Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977 Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977
Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977 Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977
Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977 Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977
Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977 Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977

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