Having a trained and competent workforce is a major factor in helping to minimise and eliminate hazards.
In conjunction with ensuring that all personnel are trained and competent it is also very important to ensure that you have sufficient people in key roles to manage the lift safely. Lifting teams will vary in size and role depending upon the complexity and type of operation conducted. For a routine forklift truck operation, you may simply have a trained operator; in some more complex situations, you may also have a spotter or guide to assist the operator to move the load and keep other personnel away from the hazard zone. It is vitally important, even in a simple setup like this that it is very clear who is the nominated PIC Person in Charge.
In the case described previously this would most likely be the banksman. As the complexity of the lift increases additional people will be required. As an example, to assist with moving and landing loads a tag line operator sometimes two for long loads will also be required. A supervisor may be brought in to assist in managing a complex lift, as this will free up the banksman to concentrate on conducting the lift. In situations with tandem lifting two devices simultaneously lifting a load or for operations with a highly complex centre of gravity requiring an engineered slinging solution, then a qualified lifting and hoisting engineer may be required to design and assist with the definition of the operation.
Whatever team is required the three most important elements for the team are communication, communication and communication. This is such a vital component.
So many incidents occur because people do not understand the sequence of work, are not informed, or do not understand the key hazards. The lifting team must ensure that there is a detailed lift plan see below , that roles and responsibilities are clearly understood and that there is a comprehensive toolbox talk pre-start safety meeting prior to the commencement of work to ensure everyone involved fully understands how the lift will be conducted. In discussing the development of a lift plan it raises a further topic related to lifting and hoisting safety, the categorisation of lifts.
This can be a contentious topic as there are many different approaches. The only topics that are consistent are that all organisations like to categorise lifts to. The typical categories used tend to be one of the following, but as stated there are others. The most common are perhaps:. Another popular scheme is to use low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk to mirror the previous categories.
Both are fine and many of the other developed solutions are also fine — this is not an exact science. Every lifting operation requires a lift plan. If you run a business where you have five forklift trucks conducting over a 1, lifts per day, it is not practicable nor helpful to develop a lift plan for every lift. I say routine because the important factor here is that staff recognise when suddenly they are faced with performing an operation that is not normal or routine and that special precautions will be taken in this case.
The important issue here is that all operators are familiar with it and do discuss it every day during the pre-start safety talk. Particularly any dynamic changes that may have occurred, e. There are some excellent sources of guidance available, usually free of charge to download from the various industry bodies involved.
I have not attempted to list and name them all as this would run into the s.
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I have provided a short description of an industry body below that I work with in the oil and gas industry. I am the chairman of the Lifting and Hoisting Task Force of this body and we are about to publish a revised recommended practice document for our industry. Latest regulations, industry case studies and unbiased articles written by experts. Latest regulations, news and unbiased articles written by experts. The best articles written by experts.
This RP describes lifting and hoisting safety elements to be incorporated into a management system that is consistent with the OGP Guidelines for the development and application of HSE management systems OGP report In addition, the references listed provide further guidelines for lifting and hoisting safety and good practice. IOGP Report Learn the essential principles of safe lifting and their application to lifting and hoisting operations. For cranes with a rated capacity over 7, kg and up to and including 13, kg 8 ton to 15 ton , operators shall successfully complete a 70 hour course acceptable to the director, which includes the safe operation of the crane.
For cranes with a rated capacity over 13, kg 15 ton , operators shall. On and after December 31, , the operator of a tower crane shall have. An operator shall inspect the crane or hoist at the beginning of each shift and test control and safety devices as specified by the manufacturer and these Regulations.
Implementation of the OGP Lifting and Hoisting Recommended Practice - OnePetro
Any defects found during inspection or use of a crane or hoist shall be recorded in the inspection and maintenance record system and reported immediately to the supervisor, who determines the course of action to be taken. Where a defect affects the safe operation of the crane or hoist, the equipment shall not be used until the defect has been remedied.
The weight of each load to be hoisted by a crane or hoist shall be determined and communicated to the equipment operator and to any other worker involved in the hoisting operation. Where the weight of a load to be lifted cannot be determined, the crane or hoist to be used for the lift shall have a load weight indicator or a load limiting device. Load weight devices, including load moment indicators on cranes or hoists, shall be calibrated as specified by the manufacturer or at more frequent intervals where required, and the date of calibration shall be recorded in the inspection and maintenance records system.
Contact with loads and structures. Swing hazards. A worker shall not remain within range of the swing of the load or equipment when a hazard is created by the swing movement of the load, cab, counterweight or any other part of the crane or hoist, and the equipment shall not be moved when any worker is so exposed. Position of equipment. Equipment shall be positioned so that no moving part of the equipment comes within 0. If the clearance required by subsection 3 cannot be provided, entry to such areas shall be prevented by barriers or other effective means.
A multiple crane lift shall be under the direction of a qualified supervisor who is responsible for safe operations. Written procedures shall be prepared for any multiple mobile crane lift. Multiple crane lift procedures shall address rigging details, wind speed, hoist line speed, crane travel speed, load distribution and other considerations as necessary.
Multiple crane lift procedures shall be communicated to all workers involved in the lift before commencing hoisting operations. Effective communication shall be established and maintained between all workers involved during a multiple crane lifting operation. When traveling with a load on a crane. Work shall be arranged to prevent passing loads over workers.
If no practicable alternative exists, a crane or hoist operator may pass a load over workers, but only when the workers have been warned of the danger by an audible alarm. A worker shall not stand or pass beneath a suspended load. A load shall not be suspended from the load hook of a crane or hoist when an operator is not at the controls. The hook or load block of a crane or hoist shall be positioned directly over the load to prevent side loading of the crane. The crane or hoist operator shall act only on directions from a designated and qualified signaller whenever the operator does not have a clear and unobstructed view of the load hook and load throughout the whole range of the hoisting operation.
When controlling hoisting operations, the signaller and operator shall use. Dedicated radio system. Multi-channel radios shall not be used to direct crane or hoist movement. No worker shall ride on a load, sling, hook or any other rigging equipment, unless it is a basket certified for that purpose. Unless the work to be performed is being done in accordance with Part 9 - Electrical Safety or the Yukon Electrical Protection Act, before a crane or hoist is operated near an electrical source such as a radio transmitter or energized high-voltage equipment.
A crane or hoist shall be positioned and operated to prevent any part of the equipment, load line or load from coming within the minimum distance of energized high-voltage electrical conductors or exposed energized electrical equipment as required in Table in Part 9 - Electrical Safety.
The working load limit of wire rope shall be reduced in accordance with the efficiency rating for the type of termination as specified by the manufacturer.
A competent person or the manufacturer shall determine the efficiency rating for the type of wire rope termination being used and the working load limit of the wire rope shall be reduced accordingly. U-bolt and double saddle type wire rope clips shall be installed and used as specified by the manufacturer. Number and positioning. Where the manufacturer's specifications cannot be determined, a competent person shall determine the number of U-bolt clips and the installation torque.
Malleable cast-iron wire rope clips shall not be used for hoisting or other critical applications unless approved by the manufacturer for that purpose. A wire rope termination using a swaged fold back eye shall. A record of the proof test shall be kept available for the service life of the wire rope termination.
A swaged sleeve used for a fold back eye shall be warranted for the intended application by the manufacturer of the sleeve. A swaged fold back eye termination shall be identified with the working load limit as required by section 5. Wire rope shall be permanently removed from service where. A hook shall have a safety latch or other means that will retain slings, chains or other similar parts under slack conditions. A shackle-pin, heel-pin or a similar device shall be secured so it cannot be dislodged. The pin in a screw-pin type shackle shall be wired or otherwise secured against rotation when used in applications that may cause the pin to loosen.
A shackle-pin shall not be replaced with a bolt or other makeshift fitting. A worn or damaged hook shall be permanently removed from service if. Wire rope, alloy steel chain, metal mesh, synthetic fibre rope and synthetic fibre web slings shall meet the requirements of ASME B Slings and attachments shall be visually inspected before use on each shift, and if defective, equipment shall be immediately removed from service. A sling shall be stored to prevent damage when not in use. When a sling is applied to a sharp edge of a load, the edge or the sling shall be protected to prevent damage to the sling.
Wire rope of non-rotating type construction or Lang's lay type construction shall not be used in a sling. A wire core rope sling shall not be exposed to or used at a temperature above degrees C degrees F unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer. A fibre core wire rope sling shall not be exposed to or used at a temperature above degrees C degrees F unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer.
Makeshift components. Makeshift couplers, shorteners, hooks or other load-bearing attachments for slings, including those made from concrete reinforcing steel, shall not be used unless the working load limit has been determined and certified by a professional engineer.
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The working load limit of any individual component of the assembly shall not be exceeded when the working load limit of a sling assembly is determined. The working load limit of a sling with more than 3 legs shall be limited to the working load limit of any 3 legs of the sling. The load carried by any single leg of a bridle sling shall not be greater than the working load limit of the leg. The working load limit of a sling used under adverse conditions, such as chemically active environments, shall be reduced according to the manufacturer's specifications.
Before any new, repaired or altered sling having welded couplers or other welded load-bearing attachments is placed in service, the sling shall have been proof tested by the manufacturer. A wire rope sling with a swaged or poured socket or a pressed fitting shall be permanently identified with. A sling shall be selected and used in a manner that prevents slipping or overstressing of the sling or the load.
A load consisting of two or more pieces of material over 3 m 10 ft. An alloy steel chain sling shall be permanently identified with. Chain used for hoisting shall be approved by the chain manufacturer for hoisting. Proof coil and transport chain shall not be used for hoisting. A chain sling shall be removed from service or repaired by a qualified person to the original manufacturer's specification or to the specifications of a professional engineer if the chain has defects such as stretch, deformation, cracks, nicks, gouges, corrosion or burned links.
SWL, WLL, Rated Capacity… Which is Correct?
A chain sling shall be permanently removed from service when the chain link wear is more than the maximum allowed by the manufacturer. Where the manufacturer does not specify removal criteria, a chain shall be permanently removed from service when the chain size at any point of the link is reduced to the values given in Table Table Allowable Chain Wear Chain size Minimum allowable chain size at any point of link metres inches metres inches 0. A chain sling shall be thoroughly inspected at least once each year and a record of the inspection maintained.
Synthetic fibre web slings shall be permanently identified with the. Temperature restriction. Synthetic fibre web slings shall not be exposed to a temperature above 82 degrees C degrees F unless permitted by the manufacturer. Removal from service. A synthetic fibre web sling shall be removed from service when. A metal mesh sling shall be removed from service if any of the following damage is visible:. Spreader bars and other specialized below-the-hook lifting devices shall be constructed, inspected, installed, tested, maintained and operated according to the requirements of ASME Standard B A nameplate or other permanent marking shall be on a spreader bar or specialized below-the-hook lifting device and display the.
A spreader bar and any other specialized below-the-hook lifting device shall be considered part of the lifted load. A bridge, gantry or overhead traveling crane installed after the effective date of these Regulations, or such a crane or its runway that has been significantly modified shall be load tested before being put into service as follows:. A record of all load tests shall be maintained giving details of the tests, verification of the loads used, and signed by the person conducting the tests.
Replacement equipment. A replacement crane or hoist, load tested in the manufacturer's facility, shall be installed on an existing runway only if the replacement unit has a rated capacity and gross weight equal to or less than the previously tested rating for the runway. Where the runway referred to in subsection 3 has been modified, it shall be recertified by a professional engineer prior to returning to service.
A bridge, gantry or other overhead traveling crane shall have a device that prevents hook travel beyond the safe upper limit at all design hoist speeds. The up-travel limit device required by subsection 1 shall be tested as each shift starts, and the test results recorded in the equipment record system. A bridge, gantry, or overhead traveling crane operated by a pendant or remote control, shall have markings on the crane structure or building visible to the operator, clearly indicating the direction of hook, bridge and trolley motions that are compatible with the markings on the controls.
Electrical conductors for the bridge and trolley shall be located or guarded to prevent contact by workers. An electrically powered crane, other than a monorail crane built prior to January 1, , shall have a means for the operator to safely interrupt the main electric circuit under any load condition. A manually powered hoist shall have a ratchet and pawl, load brake, or other mechanism to hold the load at any height.
The crank handle for a crank operated winch without automatic load brakes shall be. The carrier vehicle of a mobile crane, boom truck or aerial ladder crane shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 6 - Mobile Equipment.
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